Medicinal Plants

All over the world there are several thousand drug yielding plants. Most of the drugs are obtained from wild plants. The medicinal value of most drug plants is due to the chemicals in the plant tissue which produce a specific physiological effect on the human body.
Different drugs are obtained from different parts of plants.
These are

1. Drugs obtained from roots

Rauwolfia serpentina( Family:Apocyanaceae)
  • Aconite (Aconitum heterophyllum, Family- Ranunculaceae): Tuberous roots of Aconitum napellus/heterophyllum gives Aconite.
  • Belladona (Atropa Belladona, Family- Solanaceae)
  • Serpentine(Rauwolfia serpentina, Family-Apocyanaceae)
  • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Family-Solanaceae)
  • Colocinth (Citrullus colocynthes)

2. Drugs obtained from underground stems

  • Turmeric (Curcuma, Family: Zingiberaceae)
  • Mango ginger(Curcuma amada)
  • Garlic( Allium sativum)
  • Onion (Allium sepa)

3. Drugs obtained from barks

Cinnamomum zeylanicum
  • Mountain ebony (Bauhinia variegata)
  • Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Family-Lauraceae)
  • Quinine (Cinchona officinalis,Family-Rubiaceae)

4. Drugs obtained from Stems and Woods

  • Ephedrine (Ephedra gerardiana,Family-Gnetaceae)
  • White Sandal wood (Santalum album, Family- Santalaceae)
  • Catechu (Acacia catechu, Family- Mimosaceae)
  • White Sandal wood

    5. Drugs obtained from Leaves

    • Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica,Family- Acanthaceae)
    • Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum santactum, Family-Labietae)
    • Betel Peper (Piper betal, Family-Piperaceae)
    • Aloe (Aloe barbendensis)
    • Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus, Family- Myrtaceae)
    • Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri, Family:Scrophulariaceae).

    6. Drugs obtained from Flowers

    • Saffron(Crocus sativus, Family-Iridaceae)
    • Violet (Viola odorata)
    • Iron wood (Mesua ferrea)

    7. Drugs obtained from Fruits

    • Emblic(Gooseberry)- Emblica officinalis, FamilyEuphorbiaceae)
    • Coriander (Coriander sativum, Family-Umbelliferae)
    • Opium (Papaer somniferum, Family-Papaveraceae)

    8. Drugs obtained from seeds

    • Croton (Croton tiglium)
    • Carrot (Daucas carrota)
    • Pongam (Pongamia pinnata)
    • Datura (Family -Solanaceae)
    • henbane (Hyoscyamus niger,Family -Solanaceae)
    • Solanum xanthocarpum,Family -Solanaceae
    • Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans, Family: Myristicaceae)
    • Wall flower (Cheriranthus cheri,Family-Brassicaceae)
    • Pepper (Pepper nigrum, Family Piperaceae)

    9. Drugs obtained from all plant parts

    Neem tree
    • Blood wort( Achillea millefolium)
    • Neem tree (Azadirachta indica)
    • Spiny bamboo(Bamboosa bambos)
    • Indian solanum(Solanum xanthocarpum)
    • Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum)
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