Definition of Fungus in Biology

Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing,
filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which  reproduce asexually and sexually.
Definition of Fungus in Biology
Some important characters
Septate and coenocytic hyphae

Septate hyphae: Hyphae are multi-cellular with cross walls called septa between adjacent cells
Eg: in Agaricus,

Coenocytic hyphae or aseptate : Hyphae with multinucleate mass of protoplast in Rhizopus

Dolipore septum:
A complex septum seen in Basidiomycetes .

Each septum has a central opening called dolipore which has a cap like double membrane on each side of the septum called parenthesome.

Protoplasm is continues as septa is porous.

Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing,
filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which  reproduce asexually and sexually.
Definition of Fungus in Biology
Some important characters
Septate and coenocytic hyphae

Septate hyphae: Hyphae are multi-cellular with cross walls called septa between adjacent cells
Eg: in Agaricus,

Coenocytic hyphae or aseptate : Hyphae with multinucleate mass of protoplast in Rhizopus

Dolipore septum:
A complex septum seen in Basidiomycetes .

Each septum has a central opening called dolipore which has a cap like double membrane on each side of the septum called parenthesome.

Protoplasm is continues as septa is porous.

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5 Different types of Fungal Tissue

Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually.
Individual filaments are called hyphae and network of hyphae forms mycelium. Sometime
hyphae often organize into compact tissue like structures. 
They are as follows

 1. Plectenchyma:  network of closely or loosely interwoven hyphae
A) Prosenchyma: loosely arranged network of hyphae, unfused and parallel o one another without losing their individuality
B) Pseudoparenchyma: closely arranged network of hyphae, fused and have lost their individuality

2. Sclerotia: thick compact masses of fungal hyphae (pseudoparenchymatous)
·         Acts as resting bodies and highly resistant to unfavorable conditions
·         During favorable condition, they form mycelia or fruiting bodies
·         Rhizomorphs: rope like, tough and compact fungal hyphae.
·         Helps in transport of food materials from one part of the thallus to another
·         To spread from one favourable location to another substrata

3. Rhizomorphs: rope like, tough and compact fungal hyphae.
·         Helps in transport of food materials from one part of the thallus to another
·         To spread from one favourable location to another substrata

4. Sporophore
Spore producing hyphae or structure in some fungus
At maturity, in some fungus like Agaricus, spores are produced either directly on the somatic hyphae or, more often, on special sporiferous (spore-producing) hyphae, which may be loosely arranged or grouped into intricate structures called fruiting bodies, or sporophores.

5. Stromata: The hyphae form aggregations to produce club shaped psuedoparenchymatous  structures called stromata
It is erect, stalked, unbranched or branched and forked
At maturity, Stroma contains large number of perithecia with ascospores embedded on the outer side. White or black in colour
Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually.
Individual filaments are called hyphae and network of hyphae forms mycelium. Sometime
hyphae often organize into compact tissue like structures. 
They are as follows

 1. Plectenchyma:  network of closely or loosely interwoven hyphae
A) Prosenchyma: loosely arranged network of hyphae, unfused and parallel o one another without losing their individuality
B) Pseudoparenchyma: closely arranged network of hyphae, fused and have lost their individuality

2. Sclerotia: thick compact masses of fungal hyphae (pseudoparenchymatous)
·         Acts as resting bodies and highly resistant to unfavorable conditions
·         During favorable condition, they form mycelia or fruiting bodies
·         Rhizomorphs: rope like, tough and compact fungal hyphae.
·         Helps in transport of food materials from one part of the thallus to another
·         To spread from one favourable location to another substrata

3. Rhizomorphs: rope like, tough and compact fungal hyphae.
·         Helps in transport of food materials from one part of the thallus to another
·         To spread from one favourable location to another substrata

4. Sporophore
Spore producing hyphae or structure in some fungus
At maturity, in some fungus like Agaricus, spores are produced either directly on the somatic hyphae or, more often, on special sporiferous (spore-producing) hyphae, which may be loosely arranged or grouped into intricate structures called fruiting bodies, or sporophores.

5. Stromata: The hyphae form aggregations to produce club shaped psuedoparenchymatous  structures called stromata
It is erect, stalked, unbranched or branched and forked
At maturity, Stroma contains large number of perithecia with ascospores embedded on the outer side. White or black in colour
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What is the Mode of Nutrition in Fungi?


Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually.
       Mode of Nutrition is Heterotrophic and absorptive
       Secrete digestive enzymes
       Fungus actually “lives on the food”
       Feed by absorption
Modes of Nutrition:

A) saprotrophic: feeds on dead and decaying organic matter

B) parasitism: obtain nutrients from the host
       Ectoparasites : seen on the surface of the host eg: Erysiphae
       Endoparasites: Mycelium present inside host tissue eg: Puccinia
       Obligatory parasitism: Strict parasites eg: Puccinia
       Facultative parasites: can live as parasites or saprobes eg: Fusarium

C) Symbiosis: mutually beneficial association with other organisms
 Eg: Lichen: Algae fungal symbiosis, Mycorrhizae: Symbiosis of fungus with higher plants
Crustose Lichen
Mycorrhizae

D) Predatory fungus:
Carnivorous fungi or predaceous fungi are fungi that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and eating microscopic or other minute animals.
Eg: Arthrobotrys

Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually.
       Mode of Nutrition is Heterotrophic and absorptive
       Secrete digestive enzymes
       Fungus actually “lives on the food”
       Feed by absorption
Modes of Nutrition:

A) saprotrophic: feeds on dead and decaying organic matter

B) parasitism: obtain nutrients from the host
       Ectoparasites : seen on the surface of the host eg: Erysiphae
       Endoparasites: Mycelium present inside host tissue eg: Puccinia
       Obligatory parasitism: Strict parasites eg: Puccinia
       Facultative parasites: can live as parasites or saprobes eg: Fusarium

C) Symbiosis: mutually beneficial association with other organisms
 Eg: Lichen: Algae fungal symbiosis, Mycorrhizae: Symbiosis of fungus with higher plants
Crustose Lichen
Mycorrhizae

D) Predatory fungus:
Carnivorous fungi or predaceous fungi are fungi that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and eating microscopic or other minute animals.
Eg: Arthrobotrys
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Nostoc Taxonomic Position, Habitat, thallus and Cell structure

Nostoc: Taxonomic Position and Habitat
       Class: Cyanophyceae (Blue Green Algae)
       Order: Nostocales; Family: Nostocaceae
Nostoc Habitat, Nostoc under microscope

       Terrestrial Aquatic habitat
       Fresh water ponds, pools, puddles
       Damp soil N.commune
       Symbiotic association with some Plants Coralloid root Cycas, Anthoceros thallus
       Gelatinous grouping called “star jelly” witches butter”

Thallus structure
       Colonial, filamentous algae as mucilaginous balls
       Filaments: uniseriate, unbranched, beaded appearance
       3 types of cells: Vegetative cells, akinete and heterocyst
Cell structure
       Spherical, oval, barrel shaped cells
       Prokaryotic, two layers of  mucopolysachride
       Protoplasm divided into centroplasm and chromoplasm
       Centroplasm contains DNA
       Chromoplasm contains pigments and thylakoids
       Reserve food: Cyanophycean strach and cyanophycean protein granules
More on Nostoc: Heterocyst of Nostoc: Structure and Function
                            Reproduction in Nostoc 5 Different types
Nostoc: Taxonomic Position and Habitat
       Class: Cyanophyceae (Blue Green Algae)
       Order: Nostocales; Family: Nostocaceae
Nostoc Habitat, Nostoc under microscope

       Terrestrial Aquatic habitat
       Fresh water ponds, pools, puddles
       Damp soil N.commune
       Symbiotic association with some Plants Coralloid root Cycas, Anthoceros thallus
       Gelatinous grouping called “star jelly” witches butter”

Thallus structure
       Colonial, filamentous algae as mucilaginous balls
       Filaments: uniseriate, unbranched, beaded appearance
       3 types of cells: Vegetative cells, akinete and heterocyst
Cell structure
       Spherical, oval, barrel shaped cells
       Prokaryotic, two layers of  mucopolysachride
       Protoplasm divided into centroplasm and chromoplasm
       Centroplasm contains DNA
       Chromoplasm contains pigments and thylakoids
       Reserve food: Cyanophycean strach and cyanophycean protein granules
More on Nostoc: Heterocyst of Nostoc: Structure and Function
                            Reproduction in Nostoc 5 Different types
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Heterocyst of Nostoc Structure and Function


Nostoc is a Colonial, filamentous algae seen as mucilaginous balls that belongs to the class cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)
Heterocyst of Nostoc Structure and Function

    Heterocysts are Large sized, colourless, spherical, thick walled cells present in the filaments of blue green algae like Nostoc
     Position intercalary or terminal
    A prominent granule is present at each pole of the heterocyst called polar nodule.
Functions
-Main site of Nitrogen fixation
-Helps in vegetative reproduction; function as “point of breakage” of filaments; sometimes germinate into new filament
-Stimulate production of akinetes
-Serves as storage organs
More on Nostoc: Nostoc Taxonomic position, Habitat and Cell structure
                           Reproduction in Nostoc

Nostoc is a Colonial, filamentous algae seen as mucilaginous balls that belongs to the class cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)
Heterocyst of Nostoc Structure and Function

    Heterocysts are Large sized, colourless, spherical, thick walled cells present in the filaments of blue green algae like Nostoc
     Position intercalary or terminal
    A prominent granule is present at each pole of the heterocyst called polar nodule.
Functions
-Main site of Nitrogen fixation
-Helps in vegetative reproduction; function as “point of breakage” of filaments; sometimes germinate into new filament
-Stimulate production of akinetes
-Serves as storage organs
More on Nostoc: Nostoc Taxonomic position, Habitat and Cell structure
                           Reproduction in Nostoc
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Reproduction in Nostoc 5 different types


Nostoc is a Colonial, filamentous algae as mucilaginous balls that belongs to the class cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)



  • Sexual reproduction is absent


    • Reproduction in Nostoc 5 different types
      Asexual Reproduction
      1. Fragmentation: the colony breaks up into many pieces and each forms a new colony or old trichomes breaks up into fragments and each forming new filaments

      2. Hormogonia: are short, small motile filaments with rounded ends. These small filaments are without heterocyst and come out of the mucilage sheath, undergo division and form new colonies

      3. Akinetes: Large sized, unicellular, thick walled, resting spores with plenty of reserve food in the cytoplasm
      Highly resistant to high temperature and extreme environments
      It can tide over unfavourable conditions
      On return of favourable condition, it germinate to form new filaments

      4. Heterocyst germination: In species like N.commune, heterocysts serves as resting spores and directly germinate to form new filaments.
      The protoplasm undergoes continuous division  and forms a germling
      On favourable condition, wall of heterocyst rupture and germling comes out and forms a new trichome.

      5. Endospores: Non flagellated, thin walled, naked spores formed within cells by the division of protoplast.
      Protoplast of the cell divides into small bits and each bit forms an endospore
      In species like N.commune
      More on Nostoc:  Nostoc Taxonomic position, Habitat and Cell structure
                                      Heterocyst of Nostoc: Structure and Function

      Nostoc is a Colonial, filamentous algae as mucilaginous balls that belongs to the class cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)



    • Sexual reproduction is absent


      • Reproduction in Nostoc 5 different types
        Asexual Reproduction
        1. Fragmentation: the colony breaks up into many pieces and each forms a new colony or old trichomes breaks up into fragments and each forming new filaments

        2. Hormogonia: are short, small motile filaments with rounded ends. These small filaments are without heterocyst and come out of the mucilage sheath, undergo division and form new colonies

        3. Akinetes: Large sized, unicellular, thick walled, resting spores with plenty of reserve food in the cytoplasm
        Highly resistant to high temperature and extreme environments
        It can tide over unfavourable conditions
        On return of favourable condition, it germinate to form new filaments

        4. Heterocyst germination: In species like N.commune, heterocysts serves as resting spores and directly germinate to form new filaments.
        The protoplasm undergoes continuous division  and forms a germling
        On favourable condition, wall of heterocyst rupture and germling comes out and forms a new trichome.

        5. Endospores: Non flagellated, thin walled, naked spores formed within cells by the division of protoplast.
        Protoplast of the cell divides into small bits and each bit forms an endospore
        In species like N.commune
        More on Nostoc:  Nostoc Taxonomic position, Habitat and Cell structure
                                        Heterocyst of Nostoc: Structure and Function
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        Tree of the 21st Century Neem (Azadirachta indica)

        Neem (Scientific name- Azadirachta indica) family-Meliaceae, is a native tree of India. The Neem tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the “Tree of the 21st Century” by the United Nations. The leaves, seeds, bark, fruits, twigs, gum, root and kernels of neem have medicinal properties. High concentration of active ingredients are present in oil and seed; they are present in lesser amounts in leaves and barks
        Tree of the 21st Century Neem (Azadirachta indica)
        Neem is used for a wide range of ailments, such as influenza, sore throat, common cold, fungal infections, skin diseases, malaria, and many more ailments. It is one of the the main ingredients in every blood purification formula, used in Ayurveda. It is present in diabetic formula. It is also used in arthritis, rheumatism, external and internal parasites, treatment of malaria etc. 

        Source:
        United Nations environment Programme Neem, 2012. "The UN’s tree of the 21st Century. Nairobi: United Nation’s Environment programme."
        Available: http://www.unep.org/wed/tree-a-day/neem.asp
        Neem (Scientific name- Azadirachta indica) family-Meliaceae, is a native tree of India. The Neem tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the “Tree of the 21st Century” by the United Nations. The leaves, seeds, bark, fruits, twigs, gum, root and kernels of neem have medicinal properties. High concentration of active ingredients are present in oil and seed; they are present in lesser amounts in leaves and barks
        Tree of the 21st Century Neem (Azadirachta indica)
        Neem is used for a wide range of ailments, such as influenza, sore throat, common cold, fungal infections, skin diseases, malaria, and many more ailments. It is one of the the main ingredients in every blood purification formula, used in Ayurveda. It is present in diabetic formula. It is also used in arthritis, rheumatism, external and internal parasites, treatment of malaria etc. 

        Source:
        United Nations environment Programme Neem, 2012. "The UN’s tree of the 21st Century. Nairobi: United Nation’s Environment programme."
        Available: http://www.unep.org/wed/tree-a-day/neem.asp
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        10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

        10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

        10 Medicinal Plants and their uses
        1. Adhatoda
        Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
        Family: Acanthaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaves and roots
        Uses:
        •       The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis.
        •        Several alkaloid are present in the drug of which the important ones are Vasicine and Vasicinone.
        •     Adhatoda are extensively used for treating cold, cough, asthma and chronic bronchitis.
        2. Aloe
        Botanical name: Aloe vera
        Family: Liliaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf
        Uses:
        •        The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin diseases, piles, jaundice, rheumatism.
        •        The pulp of roasted leaves, mixed with honey, is given in cold and cough.
        3. Bacopa
        Botanical name: Bacopa monnieri
        Family: Scrophulariaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plants
        Uses:
        •    Triterpene glycosides, bacopasaponins, luteolin, apigenin and bacoside. It is a classic and nerve tonic.
        •     Brahmi juice, prepared in ghee, is given orally to the infants in small doses for goodmemory.
        •    5-10 ml leaf juice is given to children in case of constipation.
        4. Catharanthus
        Botanical name: Cantharanthus roseus (Vincarosea)
        Family: Apocyanceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Roots and leaves
        Uses:
        •       Root bark contain three alkaloids ajmalicine, serpentine, reserpine. These alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative and transquilling properties.
        •        Anti-cancer drugs: Vinblastine, Vincristine and leucocrostine.
        5. Eclipta (False Daisy)
        Botanical name: Eclipta alba
        Family: Asteraceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •      The leaf extract of Eclipta found to be a powerful liver tonic. It is good for hair growth.
        •        A black dye is obtained from Eclipta, is used as a dye.
        •        The plant essence is extracted as a rasayan for longevity and rejuvenation.
        •        It is used against dysentery, anemia, eye diseases, asthma and liver cirrhosis.
        6. Neem
        Botanical name: Azadirachta indica
        Family: Meliaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf and seeds
        Uses:
        •        Its different parts are used in Ayurvedic treatment. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds, has insecticidal and medicinal properties.
        •         Neem seed cake is rich in organic contents and it enhances soil fertility. It is also an effective nematicide.
        •        Neem has anti-bacterial properties and it is used again skin infections.
        •        Neem leaf capsules are used as an insect repellent.
        •        Neem oil and leaf extract are used to manufacture beauty care products.

        7. Ocimum (Sacred basil or Holy basil)
        Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum
        Family: Lamiaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leave and flowers
        Uses:
        •       leaf juice is given against chronic fever, haemorrhage, dysentery.
        •        It is also used to check vomiting and as an antihelmintic.
        8. Phyllanthus amarus
        Botanical name: Phyllanthus amarus
        Family: Euphorbiaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •       This plant has a reputed position in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. It is used against bronchitis, anaemia, urinary problems, asthma and also as a diuretic.
        •        In Unani system, it is stomachic and useful against chronic dysentery.
        •        Fresh roots serve as an excellent remedy for jaundice.
        •        Bark yieldsa Vitter principle, called phyllanthin.
        9. Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha)
        Botanical name: Rauwolfia serpentina
        Family: Apocyanaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Root
        Uses:
        •      It lowers blood pressure and controls schizophrenia like symptoms or mental illness.
        •        Reserpine obtained from Rauvolfia, it is an effective remedy for hypertension.
        •        Root decotion is given for uterine contraction. 
        10. Sida (Flannel weed)
        Botanical name: Sida cordifolia
        Family: Malvaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •        The plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
        •        Used for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, nasal congestion.
        10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

        10 Medicinal Plants and their uses
        1. Adhatoda
        Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
        Family: Acanthaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaves and roots
        Uses:
        •       The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis.
        •        Several alkaloid are present in the drug of which the important ones are Vasicine and Vasicinone.
        •     Adhatoda are extensively used for treating cold, cough, asthma and chronic bronchitis.
        2. Aloe
        Botanical name: Aloe vera
        Family: Liliaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf
        Uses:
        •        The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin diseases, piles, jaundice, rheumatism.
        •        The pulp of roasted leaves, mixed with honey, is given in cold and cough.
        3. Bacopa
        Botanical name: Bacopa monnieri
        Family: Scrophulariaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plants
        Uses:
        •    Triterpene glycosides, bacopasaponins, luteolin, apigenin and bacoside. It is a classic and nerve tonic.
        •     Brahmi juice, prepared in ghee, is given orally to the infants in small doses for goodmemory.
        •    5-10 ml leaf juice is given to children in case of constipation.
        4. Catharanthus
        Botanical name: Cantharanthus roseus (Vincarosea)
        Family: Apocyanceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Roots and leaves
        Uses:
        •       Root bark contain three alkaloids ajmalicine, serpentine, reserpine. These alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative and transquilling properties.
        •        Anti-cancer drugs: Vinblastine, Vincristine and leucocrostine.
        5. Eclipta (False Daisy)
        Botanical name: Eclipta alba
        Family: Asteraceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •      The leaf extract of Eclipta found to be a powerful liver tonic. It is good for hair growth.
        •        A black dye is obtained from Eclipta, is used as a dye.
        •        The plant essence is extracted as a rasayan for longevity and rejuvenation.
        •        It is used against dysentery, anemia, eye diseases, asthma and liver cirrhosis.
        6. Neem
        Botanical name: Azadirachta indica
        Family: Meliaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf and seeds
        Uses:
        •        Its different parts are used in Ayurvedic treatment. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds, has insecticidal and medicinal properties.
        •         Neem seed cake is rich in organic contents and it enhances soil fertility. It is also an effective nematicide.
        •        Neem has anti-bacterial properties and it is used again skin infections.
        •        Neem leaf capsules are used as an insect repellent.
        •        Neem oil and leaf extract are used to manufacture beauty care products.

        7. Ocimum (Sacred basil or Holy basil)
        Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum
        Family: Lamiaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leave and flowers
        Uses:
        •       leaf juice is given against chronic fever, haemorrhage, dysentery.
        •        It is also used to check vomiting and as an antihelmintic.
        8. Phyllanthus amarus
        Botanical name: Phyllanthus amarus
        Family: Euphorbiaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •       This plant has a reputed position in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. It is used against bronchitis, anaemia, urinary problems, asthma and also as a diuretic.
        •        In Unani system, it is stomachic and useful against chronic dysentery.
        •        Fresh roots serve as an excellent remedy for jaundice.
        •        Bark yieldsa Vitter principle, called phyllanthin.
        9. Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha)
        Botanical name: Rauwolfia serpentina
        Family: Apocyanaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Root
        Uses:
        •      It lowers blood pressure and controls schizophrenia like symptoms or mental illness.
        •        Reserpine obtained from Rauvolfia, it is an effective remedy for hypertension.
        •        Root decotion is given for uterine contraction. 
        10. Sida (Flannel weed)
        Botanical name: Sida cordifolia
        Family: Malvaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •        The plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
        •        Used for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, nasal congestion.
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        10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)

        Forests are large treasure house of a huge wealth of natural resources. They significantly contain nearly 50% of the terrestrial species of plants and animals
        Importance of forests( Economical or commercial aspects)
            Provide fuel wood for domestic and industrial uses, and timber for buildings, furniture, boats, railway sleepers and several other purposes.
            Supply raw materials for wood pulp in the manufacture of paper, rayon, ply woods, card boards.
            Provide food items in the form of roots, tubers, leaves, fruits, berries, nuts, spices etc
            Medicine like quinine and camphor, products like turpentine, resins, oils, alkaloids, dyes, gum, charcoal etc are obtained from forest trees.
           Serves as a source of sustainable income through ecotouism.
        Minor Forest Products(MFPs) include all the forest products, other than wood and timber. They consists of both animal products and plant products.
            Plant products: grasses, canes, bamboos, oils, leaves, oils, gums, tannins and resins
             Animal products: lac, honey, wax, Ivory, horns, hides
        10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)
        Download (ppt 1)Grasses, bamboo, Canes and leaves:
               Bamboo is generally considered as poor man’s timber
               Used for Roofing, walling, flooring and mat making, basketery, paper pulp
                        Tendu leaf of Bauhinia vahlii are used for making leaf plates and leaf cups
        2)Oils 
              •       sandal wood oil, cedar wood oil, oilve oil, clove oil, lemon grass oil, eucalyptus oil
        3) Gums used in textiles, cosmetics, medicines, pastes
               Karaya perhaps the most  important gum (Sterculia urens and S villosa)
        4) Resins:
                Resins- Turpentine oil  from pines and conifers
        5) Tannins and dyes: amla, hemlock, wattle,
               Dyes: Red sander, khair, flowers of Palash, fruits of mallotus, bark of wattle, roots of morinda etc
        Drug
               Quinine- Ant malarial from Cinchona tree
               Digitalis- heart stimulant- foxglove plant
               Morphine-analgesic from opium poppy
               Reserpine-anti hypertension from Rauwolfia
         Poisons- Aconite, Datura
        7)Spices
               Cinnamom, cardamom, galangal (Alpnia galanga)
        8) Edible plant products: tubers, flowers, fruits, berries, seeds, nuts etc
        9) Lac- is a resinous substance, secreted by the lac insect (Tachardia lacca, Laccifer lacca, or Kerria lacca)
               It is formed mainly of resin,  coloring pigments, wax, proteins, sugars etc
                         Finest form of lac is called shellac
        10)Honey and Beeswax
                          Honey used as food 
                          Used as medicine
        Forests are large treasure house of a huge wealth of natural resources. They significantly contain nearly 50% of the terrestrial species of plants and animals
        Importance of forests( Economical or commercial aspects)
            Provide fuel wood for domestic and industrial uses, and timber for buildings, furniture, boats, railway sleepers and several other purposes.
            Supply raw materials for wood pulp in the manufacture of paper, rayon, ply woods, card boards.
            Provide food items in the form of roots, tubers, leaves, fruits, berries, nuts, spices etc
            Medicine like quinine and camphor, products like turpentine, resins, oils, alkaloids, dyes, gum, charcoal etc are obtained from forest trees.
           Serves as a source of sustainable income through ecotouism.
        Minor Forest Products(MFPs) include all the forest products, other than wood and timber. They consists of both animal products and plant products.
            Plant products: grasses, canes, bamboos, oils, leaves, oils, gums, tannins and resins
             Animal products: lac, honey, wax, Ivory, horns, hides
        10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)
        Download (ppt 1)Grasses, bamboo, Canes and leaves:
               Bamboo is generally considered as poor man’s timber
               Used for Roofing, walling, flooring and mat making, basketery, paper pulp
                        Tendu leaf of Bauhinia vahlii are used for making leaf plates and leaf cups
        2)Oils 
              •       sandal wood oil, cedar wood oil, oilve oil, clove oil, lemon grass oil, eucalyptus oil
        3) Gums used in textiles, cosmetics, medicines, pastes
               Karaya perhaps the most  important gum (Sterculia urens and S villosa)
        4) Resins:
                Resins- Turpentine oil  from pines and conifers
        5) Tannins and dyes: amla, hemlock, wattle,
               Dyes: Red sander, khair, flowers of Palash, fruits of mallotus, bark of wattle, roots of morinda etc
        Drug
               Quinine- Ant malarial from Cinchona tree
               Digitalis- heart stimulant- foxglove plant
               Morphine-analgesic from opium poppy
               Reserpine-anti hypertension from Rauwolfia
         Poisons- Aconite, Datura
        7)Spices
               Cinnamom, cardamom, galangal (Alpnia galanga)
        8) Edible plant products: tubers, flowers, fruits, berries, seeds, nuts etc
        9) Lac- is a resinous substance, secreted by the lac insect (Tachardia lacca, Laccifer lacca, or Kerria lacca)
               It is formed mainly of resin,  coloring pigments, wax, proteins, sugars etc
                         Finest form of lac is called shellac
        10)Honey and Beeswax
                          Honey used as food 
                          Used as medicine
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        What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants

        Petroplants are the plants which provide liquid hydrocarbons as a substitute of liquid fuels. The hydrocarbons present in these plants can be converted to petroleum hydrocarbons. 
        Petroplants  include the members Euphorbiaceae, Apocyanaceae, Urticaceae, Asclepiaceae

        The oil crisis during World war II had led the Italians and the French to switch over to petroplants for petroleum production. The thick milky latex, extracted from Euphorbia abyssinica  was used in gasoline refinery. In 1970, Melvin Calvin showed the feasibility of procuring petroleum substitutes from certain specific groups of plants which are rich in hydrocarbons. Gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyris, milk bush (Euphorbia tirucalli) and milk weed(Calotrophis procera) are important petroplants. One advantage with the Euphoria plants is that they can grow even in semiarid lands and do not require irrigation and fertilizers for their growth. 
        What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants
        Certain tree species, such as Copaifea landsdorfii and  Copaifea   nultijuga are rich in oil . A single tree can give as much as 20-30 litres of oil in 2-3 hours in a single tapping. 
        Villagers in India use Jatropha oil can be an efficient and environmentally clean substitute for diesel. In Philippines, bamboo tube filled ignited fruits of petroleum nut (Pittosporum) is used as a torch light. Oil of Pittosporum rosinifarum contains monoterpene hydrocarbons, pinene and myrcene

        Cuphea oil (Cuphea spp), Cramble oil(Crambe abyssinica), Vernonia oil (Vernonia sp), bladderpod (Lesqurella sp), meadow foam oil (Limnanthes alba) etc, 
        in the United States, a blend made of sunflower oil and diesel  called sunoil, is widely used in diesel engines. similarly, coconut oil is mixed with diesel to give a blend, called cocodisesl, for use in diesels engine. 
        There are many species of Euphorbia which yield fuel oil resembling rude oil. Euphobia lathyris is an example. 
        Petroplants are the plants which provide liquid hydrocarbons as a substitute of liquid fuels. The hydrocarbons present in these plants can be converted to petroleum hydrocarbons. 
        Petroplants  include the members Euphorbiaceae, Apocyanaceae, Urticaceae, Asclepiaceae

        The oil crisis during World war II had led the Italians and the French to switch over to petroplants for petroleum production. The thick milky latex, extracted from Euphorbia abyssinica  was used in gasoline refinery. In 1970, Melvin Calvin showed the feasibility of procuring petroleum substitutes from certain specific groups of plants which are rich in hydrocarbons. Gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyris, milk bush (Euphorbia tirucalli) and milk weed(Calotrophis procera) are important petroplants. One advantage with the Euphoria plants is that they can grow even in semiarid lands and do not require irrigation and fertilizers for their growth. 
        What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants
        Certain tree species, such as Copaifea landsdorfii and  Copaifea   nultijuga are rich in oil . A single tree can give as much as 20-30 litres of oil in 2-3 hours in a single tapping. 
        Villagers in India use Jatropha oil can be an efficient and environmentally clean substitute for diesel. In Philippines, bamboo tube filled ignited fruits of petroleum nut (Pittosporum) is used as a torch light. Oil of Pittosporum rosinifarum contains monoterpene hydrocarbons, pinene and myrcene

        Cuphea oil (Cuphea spp), Cramble oil(Crambe abyssinica), Vernonia oil (Vernonia sp), bladderpod (Lesqurella sp), meadow foam oil (Limnanthes alba) etc, 
        in the United States, a blend made of sunflower oil and diesel  called sunoil, is widely used in diesel engines. similarly, coconut oil is mixed with diesel to give a blend, called cocodisesl, for use in diesels engine. 
        There are many species of Euphorbia which yield fuel oil resembling rude oil. Euphobia lathyris is an example. 
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