25 Amazing facts about Plants (Some Interesting Plant Facts)

Some Interesting  Plant Facts
1. Smallest flower- Wolffia
2. Largest Flower – Rafflesia
3. Smallest tree- Dwarf willow or Salix herbaceae
4. Largest tree- Sequoiadendron giganteaum
2. Smallest dicot- Arceuthobium
3. Tallest angiosperm- Eucalyptus
4. Smallest angiosperm – Wolffia
5. Smallest gymnosperm – Zamia pygmea
6. Tallest gymnosperm- Sequoia semperviens
7. Smallest pteridophytes – Azolla
8. Smallest bryophyte- Zoopsis (which is microscopic in size)
9. Largest bryophyte – Dawsonia
8. Biggest bacterium – Epulopscium fishelsoni
9. Smallest cell- Mycoplasma
10. Largest plant cell- Acetabularia

11. Largest chromosome- Trillium
12. Largest number of chromosome- Ophioglossum
13. Minimum number of chromosomes- Haplopappus gracilis
14. Smallest chromosome- Algae
15. Largest leaves – Vicotria regia
16. Plant producing largest fruit- Lodoicea
17. Oldest plant -  Larrea tridentate
18. Fastest growing plants – Hespiroyuca whipplei (Liliaceae)
19. Plant producing smallest seed – Orchids
20. Plant with largest egg cell and antherozoid – Cycas
21. Biggest ovule – Cycas
22. Hardest wood – Hardwickia
24. Largest archegonium: In bryophyte (mosses)
25. Largest Angiosperm family: Compositae
Some Interesting  Plant Facts
1. Smallest flower- Wolffia
2. Largest Flower – Rafflesia
3. Smallest tree- Dwarf willow or Salix herbaceae
4. Largest tree- Sequoiadendron giganteaum
2. Smallest dicot- Arceuthobium
3. Tallest angiosperm- Eucalyptus
4. Smallest angiosperm – Wolffia
5. Smallest gymnosperm – Zamia pygmea
6. Tallest gymnosperm- Sequoia semperviens
7. Smallest pteridophytes – Azolla
8. Smallest bryophyte- Zoopsis (which is microscopic in size)
9. Largest bryophyte – Dawsonia
8. Biggest bacterium – Epulopscium fishelsoni
9. Smallest cell- Mycoplasma
10. Largest plant cell- Acetabularia

11. Largest chromosome- Trillium
12. Largest number of chromosome- Ophioglossum
13. Minimum number of chromosomes- Haplopappus gracilis
14. Smallest chromosome- Algae
15. Largest leaves – Vicotria regia
16. Plant producing largest fruit- Lodoicea
17. Oldest plant -  Larrea tridentate
18. Fastest growing plants – Hespiroyuca whipplei (Liliaceae)
19. Plant producing smallest seed – Orchids
20. Plant with largest egg cell and antherozoid – Cycas
21. Biggest ovule – Cycas
22. Hardest wood – Hardwickia
24. Largest archegonium: In bryophyte (mosses)
25. Largest Angiosperm family: Compositae
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Important Plant Products: Economic Botany - Food Yielding Plants

Food Yielding Plants

a) Cereals
1. Rice -      Scientific name: Oryza sativa            useful part: Caryopsis
2. Wheat -  Scientific name: Triticum aestivum   useful part: Caryopsis
3. Maize -   Scientific name: Zea mays                 useful part: Caryopsis

b) Millets
1. Pearl millet (Bajra) - Scientific name: Pennisetum typoideum      useful part: Small sized grain
2.Finger millet (Ragi) - Scientific name: Eleusine coracana              useful part: Small sized grain
3.Great millet  (Jawar )- Scientific name: Sorghum vulgare               useful part: Small sized grain

c) Legumes
1. Garden pea -  Scientific name: Pisum sativum         useful part:seed
2. Chick pea - Scientific name: Cicer arietinum           useful part: seed
3.  Pigeon pea (Red gram)- Scientific name: Cajanus cajan           useful part: seed
4. Green gram (Mung) -Scientific name: Phaseolus aureus            useful part: seed
5. Black gram - Scientific name: Phaseolus mungo          useful part: seed
6. Soya bean -Scientific name: Glycine max                    useful part: seed
7. Groundnut- Scientific name: Arachis hypogea             useful part: seed in lomentum
8. Cowpea - Scientific name: Vigna sinensis                     useful part: Young pods and seeds
9. Lentil -Scientific name: Lens culinaris                          useful part: seed
10. Lima bean -Scientific name: Phaseolus lunatus        useful part: seed

d) Nuts
1. Ground nut -Scientific name: Arachis hypogea                            useful part: seeds
2. Cashew nut- Scientific name: Anacardium occidentale            useful part:Kernels
3. Green almond (pista)- Scientific name: Phaseolus aureus      useful part: seed
4.Almonds - Scientific name: Prunus amygdalus                           useful part: seeds
Food Yielding Plants

a) Cereals
1. Rice -      Scientific name: Oryza sativa            useful part: Caryopsis
2. Wheat -  Scientific name: Triticum aestivum   useful part: Caryopsis
3. Maize -   Scientific name: Zea mays                 useful part: Caryopsis

b) Millets
1. Pearl millet (Bajra) - Scientific name: Pennisetum typoideum      useful part: Small sized grain
2.Finger millet (Ragi) - Scientific name: Eleusine coracana              useful part: Small sized grain
3.Great millet  (Jawar )- Scientific name: Sorghum vulgare               useful part: Small sized grain

c) Legumes
1. Garden pea -  Scientific name: Pisum sativum         useful part:seed
2. Chick pea - Scientific name: Cicer arietinum           useful part: seed
3.  Pigeon pea (Red gram)- Scientific name: Cajanus cajan           useful part: seed
4. Green gram (Mung) -Scientific name: Phaseolus aureus            useful part: seed
5. Black gram - Scientific name: Phaseolus mungo          useful part: seed
6. Soya bean -Scientific name: Glycine max                    useful part: seed
7. Groundnut- Scientific name: Arachis hypogea             useful part: seed in lomentum
8. Cowpea - Scientific name: Vigna sinensis                     useful part: Young pods and seeds
9. Lentil -Scientific name: Lens culinaris                          useful part: seed
10. Lima bean -Scientific name: Phaseolus lunatus        useful part: seed

d) Nuts
1. Ground nut -Scientific name: Arachis hypogea                            useful part: seeds
2. Cashew nut- Scientific name: Anacardium occidentale            useful part:Kernels
3. Green almond (pista)- Scientific name: Phaseolus aureus      useful part: seed
4.Almonds - Scientific name: Prunus amygdalus                           useful part: seeds
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Two Types of Auxins and Physiological Role of Auxins

  • First plant hormone discovered was Auxin by Frits Went.
  • Tryptophan is the precursor for auxin. 
  • Auxin a- C18 H33 O& Auxin b - C18 H30O4 (IAA) exist in plants.
  • IAA is the active principle of Auxin.
Types of Auxins: Natural auxins and synthetic Auxins
Natural Auxins
Synthetic Auxins
  • IAA(Indole3- Acetic Acid)
  • Indole-3-acetaldehyde,
  • Indole-3-pyruvic acid
  • Indole-3-acetonitrile
  • Indole-3-ethanol
  • Phenyl acetic acid
  • Indole 3- Butyric Acid (IBA)
  • Indole 3-propionic acid
  • Indole Pyruvic acid
  • NAA- Napthelene Acetic acid
  • 2,4,D- 2,4, Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid
Synthetic auxins are more stable.
Physiological role of Auxins:
1. Auxins induce elongation of plant cells, roots, buds, stems, petiole, mid rib and major            lateral veins of leaf.
2. It is responsible for apical dominance.
3. Some of the auxin derivatives stimulate seed germination.
4. Some auxins promote cambial activity.
5. Root formation is stimulated by some auxins.
6. Auxins have been used to break seed dormancy.
7. It is responsible for callus formation in tissue culture.
8. They initiate early flowering and fruiting.
9. IAA induces parthenocarpy.
10. Some auxins inhibit the leaf fall and fruit fall.
11. Auxins are used as weed killers. 
  • First plant hormone discovered was Auxin by Frits Went.
  • Tryptophan is the precursor for auxin. 
  • Auxin a- C18 H33 O& Auxin b - C18 H30O4 (IAA) exist in plants.
  • IAA is the active principle of Auxin.
Types of Auxins: Natural auxins and synthetic Auxins
Natural Auxins
Synthetic Auxins
  • IAA(Indole3- Acetic Acid)
  • Indole-3-acetaldehyde,
  • Indole-3-pyruvic acid
  • Indole-3-acetonitrile
  • Indole-3-ethanol
  • Phenyl acetic acid
  • Indole 3- Butyric Acid (IBA)
  • Indole 3-propionic acid
  • Indole Pyruvic acid
  • NAA- Napthelene Acetic acid
  • 2,4,D- 2,4, Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid
Synthetic auxins are more stable.
Physiological role of Auxins:
1. Auxins induce elongation of plant cells, roots, buds, stems, petiole, mid rib and major            lateral veins of leaf.
2. It is responsible for apical dominance.
3. Some of the auxin derivatives stimulate seed germination.
4. Some auxins promote cambial activity.
5. Root formation is stimulated by some auxins.
6. Auxins have been used to break seed dormancy.
7. It is responsible for callus formation in tissue culture.
8. They initiate early flowering and fruiting.
9. IAA induces parthenocarpy.
10. Some auxins inhibit the leaf fall and fruit fall.
11. Auxins are used as weed killers. 
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Short Notes on Phytohormones (Plant Hormones)

Defiition: Plant hormones or Phytohormones may be defined as an "an organic substance produced naturally in plants which control growth and other physiological functions at a site away from its place of synthesis". Thimann (1948) proposed the term phytohormones. As these hormones are synthesis by plants, they are also called phytohormones.

Phytohormones are active in small concentrations. They are capable of influencing physiological activities leading promotion, inhibition and modification of growth. These growth regulatory substances are generally grouped under five major classes, namely Auxins, gibbellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid.


I.Growth Promoting Hormones:
II. Growth Inhibiting Hormones: 
 Phytohormones (Plant Hormones)

Auxin: Germinating seeds, stem tips, root tips, leaves, leaf buds
Dominanace of terminal bud, elongation of stem cells, growth of lateral roots, growth of plumule and radical, Production of female flowers.

Cytokinins: Produced at the tips of the root and transported through xylem to different part of the plant.
Accelerating cell growth and cell division, germination of seeds, preventing dropping of flowers and leaves.

Gibberellins: Germinating seed, embryo, buds, tender leaves, stem and root tips.
Germination of seeds, breaking down of stored food in germinating seeds, sprouting of leaves, elongation of stem, cell division, growth.





Ethylene: Produced in roots and diffuse to other part of the plant.
Prevents cell  division, causes maturation and ripening of leaves ad fruit.

Abscisic acid: Produced in mature leaves and transported to other plant parts.
Prevents cell division and cell growth, causes the dropping of mature leaves and ripe fruits helps in the dormancy of seeds and buds. 
III. Other Growth Regulators
  • Florigen
  • Vernalin
  • Brassinosteroids
  • Caulines
  • Morphactins
Defiition: Plant hormones or Phytohormones may be defined as an "an organic substance produced naturally in plants which control growth and other physiological functions at a site away from its place of synthesis". Thimann (1948) proposed the term phytohormones. As these hormones are synthesis by plants, they are also called phytohormones.

Phytohormones are active in small concentrations. They are capable of influencing physiological activities leading promotion, inhibition and modification of growth. These growth regulatory substances are generally grouped under five major classes, namely Auxins, gibbellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid.


I.Growth Promoting Hormones:
II. Growth Inhibiting Hormones: 
 Phytohormones (Plant Hormones)

Auxin: Germinating seeds, stem tips, root tips, leaves, leaf buds
Dominanace of terminal bud, elongation of stem cells, growth of lateral roots, growth of plumule and radical, Production of female flowers.

Cytokinins: Produced at the tips of the root and transported through xylem to different part of the plant.
Accelerating cell growth and cell division, germination of seeds, preventing dropping of flowers and leaves.

Gibberellins: Germinating seed, embryo, buds, tender leaves, stem and root tips.
Germination of seeds, breaking down of stored food in germinating seeds, sprouting of leaves, elongation of stem, cell division, growth.





Ethylene: Produced in roots and diffuse to other part of the plant.
Prevents cell  division, causes maturation and ripening of leaves ad fruit.

Abscisic acid: Produced in mature leaves and transported to other plant parts.
Prevents cell division and cell growth, causes the dropping of mature leaves and ripe fruits helps in the dormancy of seeds and buds. 
III. Other Growth Regulators
  • Florigen
  • Vernalin
  • Brassinosteroids
  • Caulines
  • Morphactins
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Smallest or Largest or Oldest : Some Interesting Plant Facts

smallest and largest tree in the world - Dwarf willow and Sequoiadendron
1. Smallest tree in the world: Salix herbacea (Dwarf willow) (Family: Salicaceae -Willow Family)
2. Largest tree in the world: Sequoiadendron giganteum (Family: Cupressaceae)
Wolffia and Rafflesia
3. Smallest flower in the world: Wolffia                                  (Family:  Araceae)
4. Largest flower in the world:  Rafflesia                               (Family:  Rafflesiaceae)
Oldest plant in the world: Larrea tridentate
5. Oldest plant in the world: Larrea tridentate
Great Basin Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
6. Oldest tree in the world: Great Basin Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
smallest and largest tree in the world - Dwarf willow and Sequoiadendron
1. Smallest tree in the world: Salix herbacea (Dwarf willow) (Family: Salicaceae -Willow Family)
2. Largest tree in the world: Sequoiadendron giganteum (Family: Cupressaceae)
Wolffia and Rafflesia
3. Smallest flower in the world: Wolffia                                  (Family:  Araceae)
4. Largest flower in the world:  Rafflesia                               (Family:  Rafflesiaceae)
Oldest plant in the world: Larrea tridentate
5. Oldest plant in the world: Larrea tridentate
Great Basin Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
6. Oldest tree in the world: Great Basin Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
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Difference between Primary xylem and Secondary xylem (Primary xylem vs Secondary xylem)

Xylem is a conducting tissue in plants that is meant to conduct water and minerals upwards from the roots to the leaf. It is a complex tissue composed of different types of cells. Xylem consists of xylem tracheids, vessels or tracheae, xylem fibers/xylem sclerenchyma (wood fibres) and xylem parenchyma (wood parenchyma). Secondary function of xylem is mechanical support to the plant body.
plant growth overview

The first formed xylem which is formed much before the cambial activity to produce xylem cells is called primary xylem. It is composed of two parts. The xylem formed first is with small lumen and is closest to the centre of the stem is called protoxylem. The later formed primary xylem with large lumen present towards the peripheral part of the primary xylem is known as metaxylem.
Primary Xylem vs Secondary Xylem
Primary xylem vs Secondary xylem
Primary Xylem
Secondary Xylem
The primary xylem is derived from the procambium of the apical meristem.
The secondary xylem is derived from the vascular cambium which is a lateral meristems.
It is differentiated into protoxylem and metaxylem.
The secondary xylem is not differentiated into proto and metaxylem.
The primary xylem may be endarch, mesarch or exarch.
There is no such differentiation in the secondary xylem.
The tracheids and vessels are narrow and long.
The vessels and tracheids are short and wide.
The medullary rays are derived from the apical meristem.
The secondary medullary rays are derived from ray initials of the cambium.
The vessels of primary xylem do not contain tyloses.
Here the vessels contain tyloses*.
There are no annual rings.
The annual rings are well demarcated.
The primary xylem is not differentiated into sap wood and heart wood.
There is clear cut demarcation of sap wood and heart wood in woody trees.

The xylem fibres are few in number or absent.
The xylem fibres are abundant.
* Tylosis: Bubble like outgrowth of parenchyma cells into the lumen of a vessel through a pit cavity.
Xylem is a conducting tissue in plants that is meant to conduct water and minerals upwards from the roots to the leaf. It is a complex tissue composed of different types of cells. Xylem consists of xylem tracheids, vessels or tracheae, xylem fibers/xylem sclerenchyma (wood fibres) and xylem parenchyma (wood parenchyma). Secondary function of xylem is mechanical support to the plant body.
plant growth overview

The first formed xylem which is formed much before the cambial activity to produce xylem cells is called primary xylem. It is composed of two parts. The xylem formed first is with small lumen and is closest to the centre of the stem is called protoxylem. The later formed primary xylem with large lumen present towards the peripheral part of the primary xylem is known as metaxylem.
Primary Xylem vs Secondary Xylem
Primary xylem vs Secondary xylem
Primary Xylem
Secondary Xylem
The primary xylem is derived from the procambium of the apical meristem.
The secondary xylem is derived from the vascular cambium which is a lateral meristems.
It is differentiated into protoxylem and metaxylem.
The secondary xylem is not differentiated into proto and metaxylem.
The primary xylem may be endarch, mesarch or exarch.
There is no such differentiation in the secondary xylem.
The tracheids and vessels are narrow and long.
The vessels and tracheids are short and wide.
The medullary rays are derived from the apical meristem.
The secondary medullary rays are derived from ray initials of the cambium.
The vessels of primary xylem do not contain tyloses.
Here the vessels contain tyloses*.
There are no annual rings.
The annual rings are well demarcated.
The primary xylem is not differentiated into sap wood and heart wood.
There is clear cut demarcation of sap wood and heart wood in woody trees.

The xylem fibres are few in number or absent.
The xylem fibres are abundant.
* Tylosis: Bubble like outgrowth of parenchyma cells into the lumen of a vessel through a pit cavity.
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Difference between Osmotic pressure and Osmotic potential

Osmosis  Osmotic pressure and Osmotic potential

The movement of water molecules through a semi permeable membrane from the region of higher water concentration to the region of lesser water concentration is called osmosis.
Osmotic Pressure (OP): The actual pressure, that develops in a solution, when it is separated from pure water by means of semipermeable membrane. It depends upon concentration, ionization, hydration and temperature. It is measured in terms of atmosphere (atm).
OP=miRT
where, m= Molar concentration, i= ionization constant,
 R= Gas constant and T= temperature.
Osmotic potential: It is the decrease in chemical potential of pure water due to the presence of solute particle in it.
  ψs= CRT
 (It always have negative value)
Where C = concentration of solute particle, R = gas constant and T= temperature.
Osmotic pressure vs Osmotic potential
Osmotic pressure:
1. It is the pressure which develops in an osmotic system due to entry of water into it.
2. It develops only in a confirmed system.
3. The value is positive through numerically eual to osmotic potential.

Osmotic potential:
1. It is lowering of free energy of water in a system duet o the presence of solute particles.
2. Osmotic potential is present whether the solution occurs in a confined system or an open system.
3.The value is negative through it is numerically equal  to osmotic pressure.
Learn more: Difference between Osmosis and Diffusion (Osmosis vs Diffusion)
Osmosis  Osmotic pressure and Osmotic potential

The movement of water molecules through a semi permeable membrane from the region of higher water concentration to the region of lesser water concentration is called osmosis.
Osmotic Pressure (OP): The actual pressure, that develops in a solution, when it is separated from pure water by means of semipermeable membrane. It depends upon concentration, ionization, hydration and temperature. It is measured in terms of atmosphere (atm).
OP=miRT
where, m= Molar concentration, i= ionization constant,
 R= Gas constant and T= temperature.
Osmotic potential: It is the decrease in chemical potential of pure water due to the presence of solute particle in it.
  ψs= CRT
 (It always have negative value)
Where C = concentration of solute particle, R = gas constant and T= temperature.
Osmotic pressure vs Osmotic potential
Osmotic pressure:
1. It is the pressure which develops in an osmotic system due to entry of water into it.
2. It develops only in a confirmed system.
3. The value is positive through numerically eual to osmotic potential.

Osmotic potential:
1. It is lowering of free energy of water in a system duet o the presence of solute particles.
2. Osmotic potential is present whether the solution occurs in a confined system or an open system.
3.The value is negative through it is numerically equal  to osmotic pressure.
Learn more: Difference between Osmosis and Diffusion (Osmosis vs Diffusion)
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The Taxonomic Hierarchy of Plants (Mango)

Once you named an organism you have to assign an appropriate position in a systematic frame work of classification. This frame work is called taxonomic hierarchy by which the taxonomic groups are arranged in a definite order from higher to lower categories. Each category in the hierarchy is considered as a taxonomic unit and is known as taxon.
Taxonomic Hierarchy - Mango
The categories used in the classification of plants are kingdom, division, class, order, family, genus and species.
Taxonomic Hierarchy of Mango (Taxonomic Position of Mango)
Kingdom - Plantae
Division - Embryophyta or Angiospermae
Class- Dicotyledonae
Order - Sapindales
Family- Anacardiaceae
Genus- Mangifera
Species- indica
 In the case of animals instead of division, phylum is used. These categories are ranked on above the other, called hierarchyKingdom is the highest and species is the lowest category in this hierarchy.
ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) recognizes 12 main ranks: Kingdom, Class, Order, Family, Tribe, Genus, Section, Series, Species, Varieties and Form with adequate provision for designing sub categories below each rank (sub division, sub  class, sub genus, sub species, sub variety etc).
Once you named an organism you have to assign an appropriate position in a systematic frame work of classification. This frame work is called taxonomic hierarchy by which the taxonomic groups are arranged in a definite order from higher to lower categories. Each category in the hierarchy is considered as a taxonomic unit and is known as taxon.
Taxonomic Hierarchy - Mango
The categories used in the classification of plants are kingdom, division, class, order, family, genus and species.
Taxonomic Hierarchy of Mango (Taxonomic Position of Mango)
Kingdom - Plantae
Division - Embryophyta or Angiospermae
Class- Dicotyledonae
Order - Sapindales
Family- Anacardiaceae
Genus- Mangifera
Species- indica
 In the case of animals instead of division, phylum is used. These categories are ranked on above the other, called hierarchyKingdom is the highest and species is the lowest category in this hierarchy.
ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) recognizes 12 main ranks: Kingdom, Class, Order, Family, Tribe, Genus, Section, Series, Species, Varieties and Form with adequate provision for designing sub categories below each rank (sub division, sub  class, sub genus, sub species, sub variety etc).
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Short notes on Binomial System of Nomenclature

  • Binomial system of nomenclature was introduced by Casper Bauhin (Gaspard Bauhin) in 1596.
Who proposed binomial system of nomenclature?
  • Later, it was developed by Swedish botanists Carolus Linnaeus (Father of taxonomy) in his book Species Plantarum (1753).
Definition binomial system?
  • An internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species.
How do we write binomial system of nomenclature?
  • According to this system, each plant (any organism) is given a name made of two Latin  wards.
  • The first word represent the genus and is called generic name or generic epithet, where as the second word represents species and is called specific name or specific epithet.
Binomial System of Nomenclature
Example of Scientific names
Human – Homo sapiens (here., Homo - genus name, sapiens- species name)
    Coffee – Coffee arabica
      Mango – Mangifera indica
        Potato – Potato tuberosum
        • The generic name or epithet always stats with capital letter and specific epithet starts with small letter.
                  Potato – Potato tuberosum 
        • Both these names are underlined separately. If printed italicized separately.
        Learn more: 
        • Binomial system of nomenclature was introduced by Casper Bauhin (Gaspard Bauhin) in 1596.
        Who proposed binomial system of nomenclature?
        • Later, it was developed by Swedish botanists Carolus Linnaeus (Father of taxonomy) in his book Species Plantarum (1753).
        Definition binomial system?
        • An internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species.
        How do we write binomial system of nomenclature?
        • According to this system, each plant (any organism) is given a name made of two Latin  wards.
        • The first word represent the genus and is called generic name or generic epithet, where as the second word represents species and is called specific name or specific epithet.
        Binomial System of Nomenclature
        Example of Scientific names
        Human – Homo sapiens (here., Homo - genus name, sapiens- species name)
          Coffee – Coffee arabica
            Mango – Mangifera indica
              Potato – Potato tuberosum
              • The generic name or epithet always stats with capital letter and specific epithet starts with small letter.
                        Potato – Potato tuberosum 
              • Both these names are underlined separately. If printed italicized separately.
              Learn more: 
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              Plant Images Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae)

              Euphorbia hirta
               Scientific NameEuphorbia hirta L. Family : Euphorbiaceae


              Vegetative characters
              Habit: Herb

              Leaves:  Simple, elliptical, hairy (on both upper and lower surfaces but particularly on the veins on the lower leaf surface), with a finely dentate margin. Occur in opposite pairs on the stem.

              Flowers/inflorescenceUnisexual and found in axillary cymes at each leaf node. Typically cyathium. 

              Fruit: Capsules

              UsesFor treating Asthma, bronchitis, Coughs, Hay fever, Tumors, Digestive problems, Intestinal worms, Gonorrhea.
              Euphorbia hirta
               Scientific NameEuphorbia hirta L. Family : Euphorbiaceae


              Vegetative characters
              Habit: Herb

              Leaves:  Simple, elliptical, hairy (on both upper and lower surfaces but particularly on the veins on the lower leaf surface), with a finely dentate margin. Occur in opposite pairs on the stem.

              Flowers/inflorescenceUnisexual and found in axillary cymes at each leaf node. Typically cyathium. 

              Fruit: Capsules

              UsesFor treating Asthma, bronchitis, Coughs, Hay fever, Tumors, Digestive problems, Intestinal worms, Gonorrhea.
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              Difference between Photoactive and Scotoactive stomata

              Stomata are minute pores present on the surface of leaf and young stem. They are meant for the exchange of gases, also lose of water vapour, when open. The loss of water through stomata is called stomatal transpiration. Stomata are of different types
              Photoactive and Scotoactive stomata
              Photoactive vs Scotoactive stomata
              Photoactive stomata (Photo means light): The stomata opening in response to the presence of light are called photoactive stomata
              1. These stomata remain open during day time.
              2. Found in all ordinary plants.

              Scotoactive stomata (Scoto means dark): The  stomata opening in dark are called scotoactive stomata.
              1. Stomata remain open during night.
              2. Found in some plants like Bryophyllum
              Stomata are minute pores present on the surface of leaf and young stem. They are meant for the exchange of gases, also lose of water vapour, when open. The loss of water through stomata is called stomatal transpiration. Stomata are of different types
              Photoactive and Scotoactive stomata
              Photoactive vs Scotoactive stomata
              Photoactive stomata (Photo means light): The stomata opening in response to the presence of light are called photoactive stomata
              1. These stomata remain open during day time.
              2. Found in all ordinary plants.

              Scotoactive stomata (Scoto means dark): The  stomata opening in dark are called scotoactive stomata.
              1. Stomata remain open during night.
              2. Found in some plants like Bryophyllum
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              Notes on Marsilea: Systematic Position, Morphology, Gametophyte and Life Cycle

              Marsilea
              Systematic Position:
              Division: Filicocophyta
              Class: Leptosporangiopsida
              Family: Marsiliaceae
              Genus: Marsilea
              • Species:M. hirsuta, M.rajastthanensis , M.vestita (Amphibious), M.quadrifolia
              • Habitat: Aquatic or semi aquatic habitats
              Plant Body: 
              • The plant body is the sporophyte  differentiated into Creeping rhizome, root and leaves.
              • Creeping rhizome: Grows beneath the soil, highly branched with nodes and internodes. Roots and leaves arise from the nodes
              • Leaves: rhizome forms single leaf from a node. Leaf consisits of long petiole with pinnae at the tip
              • Function: photosynthesis
              • Roots arising from node
              Other features: 
              • Heterosporous nature.
              • Leptosporangiate
              Life cycle: Heteromorphic alternation of generation.
              Gametophyte or Prothallus:
              •Microspore produces male gametophyte & megaspore produces female gametophyte.
              •Microspore are globular with cellulosic exine and intine
              •Male gametophyte develops within the microspore wall and produces many spirally coiled multi-flagellated antherozoids which swims towards megaspore
              •Megaspores are large in size with exine and intine
              •Megaspores germinates within megasporangium forming female gemetophyte bearing archegonia and a basal enlarged prothallial cell.
              •Water is essential for fertilization
              •The young sporophyte remains attached to the megaspore for some time later falls to the ground and form roots and become independent
              Vegetative Reproduction: Tubers which can withstand unfavorable condition
              Image credits
              Marsilea
              Systematic Position:
              Division: Filicocophyta
              Class: Leptosporangiopsida
              Family: Marsiliaceae
              Genus: Marsilea
              • Species:M. hirsuta, M.rajastthanensis , M.vestita (Amphibious), M.quadrifolia
              • Habitat: Aquatic or semi aquatic habitats
              Plant Body: 
              • The plant body is the sporophyte  differentiated into Creeping rhizome, root and leaves.
              • Creeping rhizome: Grows beneath the soil, highly branched with nodes and internodes. Roots and leaves arise from the nodes
              • Leaves: rhizome forms single leaf from a node. Leaf consisits of long petiole with pinnae at the tip
              • Function: photosynthesis
              • Roots arising from node
              Other features: 
              • Heterosporous nature.
              • Leptosporangiate
              Life cycle: Heteromorphic alternation of generation.
              Gametophyte or Prothallus:
              •Microspore produces male gametophyte & megaspore produces female gametophyte.
              •Microspore are globular with cellulosic exine and intine
              •Male gametophyte develops within the microspore wall and produces many spirally coiled multi-flagellated antherozoids which swims towards megaspore
              •Megaspores are large in size with exine and intine
              •Megaspores germinates within megasporangium forming female gemetophyte bearing archegonia and a basal enlarged prothallial cell.
              •Water is essential for fertilization
              •The young sporophyte remains attached to the megaspore for some time later falls to the ground and form roots and become independent
              Vegetative Reproduction: Tubers which can withstand unfavorable condition
              Image credits
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              Notes on Sporocarp of Marsilea -Morphology and Anatomy

              Sporocarp of Marsilea :
              Sporocarp of Marsilea
              •Marselia is heterosporous and Leptosporangiate: It bears two kinds of spores; microspores and megaspores produced inside microspoarngium and megasporangium
              Sporangia are formed inside specialized structures called sporocarps
              •Sporocarps are formed from the petiole of the leaf
              When young it is green and soft with hairs. On maturity becomes hard and turns brown
              Each sporocarp is attached to the petiole by means of stalk called pedicel.
              Origin of Sporocarp of Marsilea: Two views

              •       1. Laminar concept by Bower: Sporocarp is formed by the fusion of one or more leaflets or pinnae
              2. ‘Whole leaf concept’ by Johnson: Sporocarp is formed by the whole leaf
              Morphology of Sporocarp: 
              • Each sporocarp is oval or oblong body or bean seed shaped
              • The portion where the sporocarp attaches with the pedicel is called the raphe
              • Above Raphe the sporocarp has two horn shaped parts called tubercles.
              Anatomy Sporocarp:
              Anatomy Sporocarp of Marsilea
              Image credits
              Bean shaped structure with bilateral symmetry
              •Thick wall consists of three layers. Single layered epidermis wit h stomata
              Hypodermis consist of outer layer of thick walled cells and inner layer of thin walled cells and contain chloroplast.
              •Below hypodermis is a gelatinous ring of parenchymatous cells more prominent at the dorsal side.
              The central cavity contains 2 rows of elongated sori one in each half. The no. of sori may vary from 2-20
              •Each sorus arise from the placentum
              Each sorus is surrounded  by its own indusium. It contains a megasporangium at the tip and 2 microsporangia one on either side of the placentum
              Each sporangium has a separate vascular connection
              Sporocarp of Marsilea :
              Sporocarp of Marsilea
              •Marselia is heterosporous and Leptosporangiate: It bears two kinds of spores; microspores and megaspores produced inside microspoarngium and megasporangium
              Sporangia are formed inside specialized structures called sporocarps
              •Sporocarps are formed from the petiole of the leaf
              When young it is green and soft with hairs. On maturity becomes hard and turns brown
              Each sporocarp is attached to the petiole by means of stalk called pedicel.
              Origin of Sporocarp of Marsilea: Two views

              •       1. Laminar concept by Bower: Sporocarp is formed by the fusion of one or more leaflets or pinnae
              2. ‘Whole leaf concept’ by Johnson: Sporocarp is formed by the whole leaf
              Morphology of Sporocarp: 
              • Each sporocarp is oval or oblong body or bean seed shaped
              • The portion where the sporocarp attaches with the pedicel is called the raphe
              • Above Raphe the sporocarp has two horn shaped parts called tubercles.
              Anatomy Sporocarp:
              Anatomy Sporocarp of Marsilea
              Image credits
              Bean shaped structure with bilateral symmetry
              •Thick wall consists of three layers. Single layered epidermis wit h stomata
              Hypodermis consist of outer layer of thick walled cells and inner layer of thin walled cells and contain chloroplast.
              •Below hypodermis is a gelatinous ring of parenchymatous cells more prominent at the dorsal side.
              The central cavity contains 2 rows of elongated sori one in each half. The no. of sori may vary from 2-20
              •Each sorus arise from the placentum
              Each sorus is surrounded  by its own indusium. It contains a megasporangium at the tip and 2 microsporangia one on either side of the placentum
              Each sporangium has a separate vascular connection
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