10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

10 Medicinal Plants and their uses
1. Adhatoda
Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
Family: Acanthaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leaves and roots
Uses:
  •       The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis.
  •        Several alkaloid are present in the drug of which the important ones are Vasicine and Vasicinone.
  •     Adhatoda are extensively used for treating cold, cough, asthma and chronic bronchitis.
2. Aloe
Botanical name: Aloe vera
Family: Liliaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf
Uses:

  •        The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin diseases, piles, jaundice, rheumatism.
  •        The pulp of roasted leaves, mixed with honey, is given in cold and cough.
3. Bacopa
Botanical name: Bacopa monnieri
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plants
Uses:

  •    Triterpene glycosides, bacopasaponins, luteolin, apigenin and bacoside. It is a classic and nerve tonic.
  •     Brahmi juice, prepared in ghee, is given orally to the infants in small doses for goodmemory.
  •    5-10 ml leaf juice is given to children in case of constipation.

4. Catharanthus
Botanical name: Cantharanthus roseus (Vincarosea)
Family: Apocyanceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Roots and leaves
Uses:

  •        Root bark contain threealkaloids ajmalicine, serpentine, reserpine. These alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative and transquilling properties.
  •        Anti-cancer drugs: Vinblastine, Vincristine and leucocrostine.

5. Eclipta (False Daisy)
Botanical name: Eclipta alba
Family: Asteraceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
Uses:

  •        The leaf extract of Eclipta found to be a powerful liver tonic. It is good for hair growth.
  •        A black dye is obtained from Eclipta, is used as a dye.
  •        The plant essence is extracted as a rasayan for longevity and rejuvenation.
  •        It is used against dysentery, anemia, eye diseases, asthma and liver cirrhosis.
6. Neem
Botanical name: Azadirachta indica
Family: Meliaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf and seeds
Uses:

  •        Its different parts are used in Ayurvedic treatment. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds, has insecticidal and medicinal properties.
  •         Neem seed cake is rich in organic contents and it enhances soil fertility. It is also an effective nematicide.
  •        Neem has anti-bacterial properties and it is used again skin infections.
  •        Neem leaf capsules are used as an insect repellent.
  •        Neem oil and leaf extract are used to manufacture beauty care products.
7. Ocimum (Sacred basil or Holy basil)
Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum
Family: Lamiaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leave and flowers
Uses:

  •        leaf juice is given against chronic fever, haemorrhage, dysentery.
  •        It is also used to check vomiting and as an antihelmintic.

8. Phyllanthus amarus
Botanical name: Phyllanthus amarus
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
Uses:

  •        This plant has a reputed position in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. It is used against bronchitis, anaemia, urinary problems, asthma and also as a diuretic.
  •        In Unani system, it is stomachic and useful against chronic dysentery.
  •        Fresh roots serve as an excellent remedy for jaundice.
  •        Bark yieldsa Vitter principle, called phyllanthin.

9. Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha)
Botanical name: Rauwolfia serpentina
Family: Apocyanaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Root
Uses:

  •        It lowers blood pressure and controls schizophrenia like symptoms or mental illness.
  •        Reserpine obtained from Rauvolfia, it is an effective remedy for hypertension.
  •        Root decotion is given for uterine contraction. 

10. Sida (Flannel weed)
Botanical name: Sida cordifolia
Family: Malvaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
Uses:

  •        The plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
  •        Used for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, nasal congestion.
10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

10 Medicinal Plants and their uses
1. Adhatoda
Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
Family: Acanthaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leaves and roots
Uses:
  •       The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis.
  •        Several alkaloid are present in the drug of which the important ones are Vasicine and Vasicinone.
  •     Adhatoda are extensively used for treating cold, cough, asthma and chronic bronchitis.
2. Aloe
Botanical name: Aloe vera
Family: Liliaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf
Uses:

  •        The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin diseases, piles, jaundice, rheumatism.
  •        The pulp of roasted leaves, mixed with honey, is given in cold and cough.
3. Bacopa
Botanical name: Bacopa monnieri
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plants
Uses:

  •    Triterpene glycosides, bacopasaponins, luteolin, apigenin and bacoside. It is a classic and nerve tonic.
  •     Brahmi juice, prepared in ghee, is given orally to the infants in small doses for goodmemory.
  •    5-10 ml leaf juice is given to children in case of constipation.

4. Catharanthus
Botanical name: Cantharanthus roseus (Vincarosea)
Family: Apocyanceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Roots and leaves
Uses:

  •        Root bark contain threealkaloids ajmalicine, serpentine, reserpine. These alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative and transquilling properties.
  •        Anti-cancer drugs: Vinblastine, Vincristine and leucocrostine.

5. Eclipta (False Daisy)
Botanical name: Eclipta alba
Family: Asteraceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
Uses:

  •        The leaf extract of Eclipta found to be a powerful liver tonic. It is good for hair growth.
  •        A black dye is obtained from Eclipta, is used as a dye.
  •        The plant essence is extracted as a rasayan for longevity and rejuvenation.
  •        It is used against dysentery, anemia, eye diseases, asthma and liver cirrhosis.
6. Neem
Botanical name: Azadirachta indica
Family: Meliaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf and seeds
Uses:

  •        Its different parts are used in Ayurvedic treatment. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds, has insecticidal and medicinal properties.
  •         Neem seed cake is rich in organic contents and it enhances soil fertility. It is also an effective nematicide.
  •        Neem has anti-bacterial properties and it is used again skin infections.
  •        Neem leaf capsules are used as an insect repellent.
  •        Neem oil and leaf extract are used to manufacture beauty care products.
7. Ocimum (Sacred basil or Holy basil)
Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum
Family: Lamiaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leave and flowers
Uses:

  •        leaf juice is given against chronic fever, haemorrhage, dysentery.
  •        It is also used to check vomiting and as an antihelmintic.

8. Phyllanthus amarus
Botanical name: Phyllanthus amarus
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
Uses:

  •        This plant has a reputed position in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. It is used against bronchitis, anaemia, urinary problems, asthma and also as a diuretic.
  •        In Unani system, it is stomachic and useful against chronic dysentery.
  •        Fresh roots serve as an excellent remedy for jaundice.
  •        Bark yieldsa Vitter principle, called phyllanthin.

9. Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha)
Botanical name: Rauwolfia serpentina
Family: Apocyanaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Root
Uses:

  •        It lowers blood pressure and controls schizophrenia like symptoms or mental illness.
  •        Reserpine obtained from Rauvolfia, it is an effective remedy for hypertension.
  •        Root decotion is given for uterine contraction. 

10. Sida (Flannel weed)
Botanical name: Sida cordifolia
Family: Malvaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
Uses:

  •        The plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
  •        Used for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, nasal congestion.
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10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)

Forests are large treasure house of a huge wealth of natural resources. They significantly contain nearly 50% of the terrestrial species of plants and animals
Importance of forests( Economical or commercial aspects)
    Provide fuel wood for domestic and industrial uses, and timber for buildings, furniture, boats, railway sleepers and several other purposes.
    Supply raw materials for wood pulp in the manufacture of paper, rayon, ply woods, card boards.
    Provide food items in the form of roots, tubers, leaves, fruits, berries, nuts, spices etc
    Medicine like quinine and camphor, products like turpentine, resins, oils, alkaloids, dyes, gum, charcoal etc are obtained from forest trees.
   Serves as a source of sustainable income through ecotouism.
Minor Forest Products(MFPs) include all the forest products, other than wood and timber. They consists of both animal products and plant products.
    Plant products: grasses, canes, bamboos, oils, leaves, oils, gums, tannins and resins
     Animal products: lac, honey, wax, Ivory, horns, hides
10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)
Download (ppt 1)Grasses, bamboo, Canes and leaves:
       Bamboo is generally considered as poor man’s timber
       Used for Roofing, walling, flooring and mat making, basketery, paper pulp
                Tendu leaf of Bauhinia vahlii are used for making leaf plates and leaf cups
2)Oils 
      •       sandal wood oil, cedar wood oil, oilve oil, clove oil, lemon grass oil, eucalyptus oil
3) Gums used in textiles, cosmetics, medicines, pastes
       Karaya perhaps the most  important gum (Sterculia urens and S villosa)
4) Resins:
        Resins- Turpentine oil  from pines and conifers
5) Tannins and dyes: amla, hemlock, wattle,
       Dyes: Red sander, khair, flowers of Palash, fruits of mallotus, bark of wattle, roots of morinda etc
Drug
       Quinine- Ant malarial from Cinchona tree
       Digitalis- heart stimulant- foxglove plant
       Morphine-analgesic from opium poppy
       Reserpine-anti hypertension from Rauwolfia
 Poisons- Aconite, Datura
7)Spices
       Cinnamom, cardamom, galangal (Alpnia galanga)
8) Edible plant products: tubers, flowers, fruits, berries, seeds, nuts etc
9) Lac- is a resinous substance, secreted by the lac insect (Tachardia lacca, Laccifer lacca, or Kerria lacca)
       It is formed mainly of resin,  coloring pigments, wax, proteins, sugars etc
                 Finest form of lac is called shellac
10)Honey and Beeswax
                  Honey used as food 
                  Used as medicine
Forests are large treasure house of a huge wealth of natural resources. They significantly contain nearly 50% of the terrestrial species of plants and animals
Importance of forests( Economical or commercial aspects)
    Provide fuel wood for domestic and industrial uses, and timber for buildings, furniture, boats, railway sleepers and several other purposes.
    Supply raw materials for wood pulp in the manufacture of paper, rayon, ply woods, card boards.
    Provide food items in the form of roots, tubers, leaves, fruits, berries, nuts, spices etc
    Medicine like quinine and camphor, products like turpentine, resins, oils, alkaloids, dyes, gum, charcoal etc are obtained from forest trees.
   Serves as a source of sustainable income through ecotouism.
Minor Forest Products(MFPs) include all the forest products, other than wood and timber. They consists of both animal products and plant products.
    Plant products: grasses, canes, bamboos, oils, leaves, oils, gums, tannins and resins
     Animal products: lac, honey, wax, Ivory, horns, hides
10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)
Download (ppt 1)Grasses, bamboo, Canes and leaves:
       Bamboo is generally considered as poor man’s timber
       Used for Roofing, walling, flooring and mat making, basketery, paper pulp
                Tendu leaf of Bauhinia vahlii are used for making leaf plates and leaf cups
2)Oils 
      •       sandal wood oil, cedar wood oil, oilve oil, clove oil, lemon grass oil, eucalyptus oil
3) Gums used in textiles, cosmetics, medicines, pastes
       Karaya perhaps the most  important gum (Sterculia urens and S villosa)
4) Resins:
        Resins- Turpentine oil  from pines and conifers
5) Tannins and dyes: amla, hemlock, wattle,
       Dyes: Red sander, khair, flowers of Palash, fruits of mallotus, bark of wattle, roots of morinda etc
Drug
       Quinine- Ant malarial from Cinchona tree
       Digitalis- heart stimulant- foxglove plant
       Morphine-analgesic from opium poppy
       Reserpine-anti hypertension from Rauwolfia
 Poisons- Aconite, Datura
7)Spices
       Cinnamom, cardamom, galangal (Alpnia galanga)
8) Edible plant products: tubers, flowers, fruits, berries, seeds, nuts etc
9) Lac- is a resinous substance, secreted by the lac insect (Tachardia lacca, Laccifer lacca, or Kerria lacca)
       It is formed mainly of resin,  coloring pigments, wax, proteins, sugars etc
                 Finest form of lac is called shellac
10)Honey and Beeswax
                  Honey used as food 
                  Used as medicine
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What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants

Petroplants are the plants which provide liquid hydrocarbons as a substitute of liquid fuels. The hydrocarbons present in these plants can be converted to petroleum hydrocarbons. 
Petroplants  include the members Euphorbiaceae, Apocyanaceae, Urticaceae, Asclepiaceae

The oil crisis during World war II had led the Italians and the French to switch over to petroplants for petroleum production. The thick milky latex, extracted from Euphorbia abyssinica  was used in gasoline refinery. In 1970, Melvin Calvin showed the feasibility of procuring petroleum substitutes from certain specific groups of plants which are rich in hydrocarbons. Gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyris, milk bush (Euphorbia tirucalli) and milk weed(Calotrophis procera) are important petroplants. One advantage with the Euphoria plants is that they can grow even in semiarid lands and do not require irrigation and fertilizers for their growth. 
What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants
Certain tree species, such as Copaifea landsdorfii and  Copaifea   nultijuga are rich in oil . A single tree can give as much as 20-30 litres of oil in 2-3 hours in a single tapping. 
Villagers in India use Jatropha oil can be an efficient and environmentally clean substitute for diesel. In Philippines, bamboo tube filled ignited fruits of petroleum nut (Pittosporum) is used as a torch light. Oil of Pittosporum rosinifarum contains monoterpene hydrocarbons, pinene and myrcene

Cuphea oil (Cuphea spp), Cramble oil(Crambe abyssinica), Vernonia oil (Vernonia sp), bladderpod (Lesqurella sp), meadow foam oil (Limnanthes alba) etc, 
in the United States, a blend made of sunflower oil and diesel  called sunoil, is widely used in diesel engines. similarly, coconut oil is mixed with diesel to give a blend, called cocodisesl, for use in diesels engine. 
There are many species of Euphorbia which yield fuel oil resembling rude oil. Euphobia lathyris is an example. 
Petroplants are the plants which provide liquid hydrocarbons as a substitute of liquid fuels. The hydrocarbons present in these plants can be converted to petroleum hydrocarbons. 
Petroplants  include the members Euphorbiaceae, Apocyanaceae, Urticaceae, Asclepiaceae

The oil crisis during World war II had led the Italians and the French to switch over to petroplants for petroleum production. The thick milky latex, extracted from Euphorbia abyssinica  was used in gasoline refinery. In 1970, Melvin Calvin showed the feasibility of procuring petroleum substitutes from certain specific groups of plants which are rich in hydrocarbons. Gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyris, milk bush (Euphorbia tirucalli) and milk weed(Calotrophis procera) are important petroplants. One advantage with the Euphoria plants is that they can grow even in semiarid lands and do not require irrigation and fertilizers for their growth. 
What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants
Certain tree species, such as Copaifea landsdorfii and  Copaifea   nultijuga are rich in oil . A single tree can give as much as 20-30 litres of oil in 2-3 hours in a single tapping. 
Villagers in India use Jatropha oil can be an efficient and environmentally clean substitute for diesel. In Philippines, bamboo tube filled ignited fruits of petroleum nut (Pittosporum) is used as a torch light. Oil of Pittosporum rosinifarum contains monoterpene hydrocarbons, pinene and myrcene

Cuphea oil (Cuphea spp), Cramble oil(Crambe abyssinica), Vernonia oil (Vernonia sp), bladderpod (Lesqurella sp), meadow foam oil (Limnanthes alba) etc, 
in the United States, a blend made of sunflower oil and diesel  called sunoil, is widely used in diesel engines. similarly, coconut oil is mixed with diesel to give a blend, called cocodisesl, for use in diesels engine. 
There are many species of Euphorbia which yield fuel oil resembling rude oil. Euphobia lathyris is an example. 
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Ecologically Fragile Area

Ecologically fragile are is an extremely sensitive and highly vulnerable ecological are with high susceptibility to anthropogenic stress, highly altered natural habitats, seriously threatened biodiversity, and very delicately balanced and unstable abiotic and biotic conditions. Ecologically fragile areas require immediate and far sighted conservation measures to save them from permanent and irreparable damage and destruction. 

Tropical forest and coral reefs are the richest source of biodiversity. At the same time, they are also among the most fragile and vulnerable habitats. Every year nearly 1% of the total tropical forests of the world may be permanently cleared or converted to slash burn agriculture.  If this trend continues at the present rate, all the tropical forests may disappear by the year 2135, marking the total devastation of the largest pool of the biodiversity in the world. Coral communities are also fast depleting due to global warming of oceans, increasing acidification of sea water, wide spread marine pollution etc. 
Ecologically Fragile Area in India - Western Ghats
According to the report Gadgil committee, there are 123 ecologically fragile villages in the Western Ghats range of Kerala(India).
Ecologically fragile are is an extremely sensitive and highly vulnerable ecological are with high susceptibility to anthropogenic stress, highly altered natural habitats, seriously threatened biodiversity, and very delicately balanced and unstable abiotic and biotic conditions. Ecologically fragile areas require immediate and far sighted conservation measures to save them from permanent and irreparable damage and destruction. 

Tropical forest and coral reefs are the richest source of biodiversity. At the same time, they are also among the most fragile and vulnerable habitats. Every year nearly 1% of the total tropical forests of the world may be permanently cleared or converted to slash burn agriculture.  If this trend continues at the present rate, all the tropical forests may disappear by the year 2135, marking the total devastation of the largest pool of the biodiversity in the world. Coral communities are also fast depleting due to global warming of oceans, increasing acidification of sea water, wide spread marine pollution etc. 
Ecologically Fragile Area in India - Western Ghats
According to the report Gadgil committee, there are 123 ecologically fragile villages in the Western Ghats range of Kerala(India).
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What is Ecological Footprint? Application of Ecological Footprint

The concept was put forward by William Rees (1992), formerly termed appropriated carrying capacity. 
What is Ecological Footprint definition


It represents the biologically productive area of land and sea, necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and also to dispose the associated waste.
Ecological footprint: Do we fit our planet? from Alexandre Magnin on Vimeo.

It is a measure of how much biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it consumes, and to absorb the waste it regenerates.
•Ecological footprint is a resource accounting system for the biological capacity of earth

•It may very well reveal how much biocapacity does the planet earth possess and how much of it mankind uses. 

How much of the earth or how many planet earths is necessary to support humanity.

The estimated global Ecological footprint of man kind was 1.5 planet earths. This means that humanity uses ecological resources 1.5 times as quickly as Earth can regenerate and new them.  (2007 report)

•The ecological footprint is usually measured in global hectares (gha)

•In 2007, the biologically productive per capita area worldwide was approximately 1.8gha.

•Present ecological footprint (EF) has exceeded the biocapacity of the  earth by 20%. Currently , as per the latest information, Cuba is the only country whose ecological footprint (EF) is below 1.8gha

• Global Footprint Network (GFN)calculates the ecological footprint from UN and other data for the world as a whole and for over 200 nations. They estimate that as of 2013, humanity has been using natural capital 1.6 times as fast as nature can renew it.

Significance of Ecological Footprint (EF)
EF can be used as  an effective tool for a number of purposes, namely
To educate the people about natures carrying capacity and the over consumption of resources by man kind
To prove that current life styles are not sustainable
To reveal that there exist inequalities among nations in the supply and consumption of resources
Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) can be used as an indicator of environmental  sustainability to measure and manage the use of resources.
Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) can be used to explore the sustainability of life styles, goods and services, industry, economy and so on.  
The concept was put forward by William Rees (1992), formerly termed appropriated carrying capacity. 
What is Ecological Footprint definition


It represents the biologically productive area of land and sea, necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and also to dispose the associated waste.
Ecological footprint: Do we fit our planet? from Alexandre Magnin on Vimeo.

It is a measure of how much biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it consumes, and to absorb the waste it regenerates.
•Ecological footprint is a resource accounting system for the biological capacity of earth

•It may very well reveal how much biocapacity does the planet earth possess and how much of it mankind uses. 

How much of the earth or how many planet earths is necessary to support humanity.

The estimated global Ecological footprint of man kind was 1.5 planet earths. This means that humanity uses ecological resources 1.5 times as quickly as Earth can regenerate and new them.  (2007 report)

•The ecological footprint is usually measured in global hectares (gha)

•In 2007, the biologically productive per capita area worldwide was approximately 1.8gha.

•Present ecological footprint (EF) has exceeded the biocapacity of the  earth by 20%. Currently , as per the latest information, Cuba is the only country whose ecological footprint (EF) is below 1.8gha

• Global Footprint Network (GFN)calculates the ecological footprint from UN and other data for the world as a whole and for over 200 nations. They estimate that as of 2013, humanity has been using natural capital 1.6 times as fast as nature can renew it.

Significance of Ecological Footprint (EF)
EF can be used as  an effective tool for a number of purposes, namely
To educate the people about natures carrying capacity and the over consumption of resources by man kind
To prove that current life styles are not sustainable
To reveal that there exist inequalities among nations in the supply and consumption of resources
Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) can be used as an indicator of environmental  sustainability to measure and manage the use of resources.
Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) can be used to explore the sustainability of life styles, goods and services, industry, economy and so on.  
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Soil Types: Sandy soil, Clay soil, Loamy soil, Alluvial soil, Red soil, Peat soil

Soil Types
  •  The term soil is derived from a latin word ‘Solum’ which means floor.
  • Soil is the basic substratum for all forms of life in the world.
  • Soil as a complex physical biological system providing support, water, nutrients and oxygen for plants.
  • The branch of science, concerned with the study of soil, is termed pedology or edaphology (Soil science)
  •  Soil may be defined as a thin layer of earth’s crust which serves as a natural medium for the growth of plants.
  • It may be of six types mainly


1.Clay soil 
  • It consists of very fine grained material with very less air spaces.
  • It is difficult to work with since most of the time there is a chance of water logging and harm to the roots of the plant.
  • It is not a suitable type of soil for any garden, as it becomes hard during hot season and renders it difficult for the roots to spread.
  • Generally speaking, soil containing more than 35% of clay is unsuitable for rowing plants
  • Feels lumpy and sticky when very wet
  • Rock-hard when dry
  • Clay drains poorly
  • Few air spaces
  • Warms slowly in spring
  • Heavy to cultivate
2. Sandy soil
  • This type consists of rock and mineral particles.
  • Sandy soil is formed by the disintegration and weathering of rocks such as limestone, granite, etc.
  • Sandy soil is easy to handle since it is light and porous.
  • It provides good aeration and drainage but dries out quickly.
  • Free-draining soil
  • Gritty to the touch
  • Warms up quickly in spring
  • Easy to cultivate
  • May lack nutrients, which are easily washed through the soil in wet weather (often called a "hungry" soil.)
3.Peat soil
  • Contains a much higher proportion of organic matter (peat) because the soil’s acidic nature inhibits decomposition
  • But this means there are few nutrients
  • Dark in colour
  • Warms up quickly in spring
  • Highly water retentive and may require drainage if the water table is near the surface
  • Fantastic for plant growth if fertilizer is added

4.Loamy soil
  • This soil consists of sand, silt and clay in relatively even concentration (40-40-20% concentration respectively).
  • Loamy soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils and have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils.
  • Loam is considered ideal for gardening and agricultural uses because it retains nutrients and water well while still allowing excess water to drain away.
  • Loam is found in a majority of successful farms in regions around the world known for their fertile land.
  • This soil is easy to work over a wide range of moisture conditions.
  • The perfect soil
  • Good structure
  • Drains well
  • Retains moisture
  • Full of nutrients
  • Easy to cultivate
  • Warms up quickly in spring and doesn’t dry out in summer
5. Alluvial soil
  • It is the sediment of rivers and streams and rich in humus(decomposed organic matter).
  • This soil is excellent for ferns and palms
  • Alluvial Soil is best for crops like - Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Jute, Barley, Corn, Oilseed, Coffee, Potatoes, Chili, Cloves etc
6. Red soil
  • Red earth with soft fine particles dissolve quickly in water is suitable for most plants including pot plants.
  • It is rich in Iron, phosphate, lime, potash and humus and supports wide crop diversity.  
  • Red Soil is best for crops like - Cotton, Wheat, Pulses, Tobacco, Jowar, Linseed, Millet, Potatoes and Some Fruits etc. 
Soil Types
  •  The term soil is derived from a latin word ‘Solum’ which means floor.
  • Soil is the basic substratum for all forms of life in the world.
  • Soil as a complex physical biological system providing support, water, nutrients and oxygen for plants.
  • The branch of science, concerned with the study of soil, is termed pedology or edaphology (Soil science)
  •  Soil may be defined as a thin layer of earth’s crust which serves as a natural medium for the growth of plants.
  • It may be of six types mainly


1.Clay soil 
  • It consists of very fine grained material with very less air spaces.
  • It is difficult to work with since most of the time there is a chance of water logging and harm to the roots of the plant.
  • It is not a suitable type of soil for any garden, as it becomes hard during hot season and renders it difficult for the roots to spread.
  • Generally speaking, soil containing more than 35% of clay is unsuitable for rowing plants
  • Feels lumpy and sticky when very wet
  • Rock-hard when dry
  • Clay drains poorly
  • Few air spaces
  • Warms slowly in spring
  • Heavy to cultivate
2. Sandy soil
  • This type consists of rock and mineral particles.
  • Sandy soil is formed by the disintegration and weathering of rocks such as limestone, granite, etc.
  • Sandy soil is easy to handle since it is light and porous.
  • It provides good aeration and drainage but dries out quickly.
  • Free-draining soil
  • Gritty to the touch
  • Warms up quickly in spring
  • Easy to cultivate
  • May lack nutrients, which are easily washed through the soil in wet weather (often called a "hungry" soil.)
3.Peat soil
  • Contains a much higher proportion of organic matter (peat) because the soil’s acidic nature inhibits decomposition
  • But this means there are few nutrients
  • Dark in colour
  • Warms up quickly in spring
  • Highly water retentive and may require drainage if the water table is near the surface
  • Fantastic for plant growth if fertilizer is added

4.Loamy soil
  • This soil consists of sand, silt and clay in relatively even concentration (40-40-20% concentration respectively).
  • Loamy soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils and have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils.
  • Loam is considered ideal for gardening and agricultural uses because it retains nutrients and water well while still allowing excess water to drain away.
  • Loam is found in a majority of successful farms in regions around the world known for their fertile land.
  • This soil is easy to work over a wide range of moisture conditions.
  • The perfect soil
  • Good structure
  • Drains well
  • Retains moisture
  • Full of nutrients
  • Easy to cultivate
  • Warms up quickly in spring and doesn’t dry out in summer
5. Alluvial soil
  • It is the sediment of rivers and streams and rich in humus(decomposed organic matter).
  • This soil is excellent for ferns and palms
  • Alluvial Soil is best for crops like - Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Jute, Barley, Corn, Oilseed, Coffee, Potatoes, Chili, Cloves etc
6. Red soil
  • Red earth with soft fine particles dissolve quickly in water is suitable for most plants including pot plants.
  • It is rich in Iron, phosphate, lime, potash and humus and supports wide crop diversity.  
  • Red Soil is best for crops like - Cotton, Wheat, Pulses, Tobacco, Jowar, Linseed, Millet, Potatoes and Some Fruits etc. 
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Definition Horticulture Branches of Horticulture

The word horticulture comes from two Latin words “hortus” and “colere, which means garden culture.
Definition: Horticulture is a branch of agriculture that deals with certain features involving utilization of fruits, vegetables, flowers and other plants. 
•Horticulture is the art, science and practice of growing and maintaining plants in different types of environment.
It involves the propagation, cultivation and processing of fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, ornamental plants and flowers.
•Deals with production and processing of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, spices, herbs and flowers.
• Horticulture involves intensive cultural practices where plants or species are usually given individual attention.
•There are branches of horticulture that deal with flowers, seeds, turf and lawns, fruits, trees, worms, fishes, wines, silk, garden trails and much more.
Branches of Horticulture
  • Pomology(Fruit culture):The branch of horticulture, concerned with the production, harvesting, processing, preservation, storage and marketing of fruits and nuts. 
Pomology(Fruit culture)
  • Olericulture (Vegetable culture): The science and practice of growing, handling, storing, processing and marketing of vegetables. 
  • Floriculture: The science and practice of growing, handling, storing, processing and marketing of flowers.
Floriculture
  • Arboriculture : is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs.
  • Turf culture and management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of turf grass for sports or leisure use .
  • Ornamental and Landscape Horticulture: The art of designing gardens, establishing lawns, installing plants and placing ornaments in the landscape.
  • Viticulture includes the production and marketing of grapes.
  • Oenology includes all aspects of wine and winemaking.
  • Silviculture:  The name comes from the Latin silvi- (forest) + culture (as in growing).
is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.

The word horticulture comes from two Latin words “hortus” and “colere, which means garden culture.
Definition: Horticulture is a branch of agriculture that deals with certain features involving utilization of fruits, vegetables, flowers and other plants. 
•Horticulture is the art, science and practice of growing and maintaining plants in different types of environment.
It involves the propagation, cultivation and processing of fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, ornamental plants and flowers.
•Deals with production and processing of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, spices, herbs and flowers.
• Horticulture involves intensive cultural practices where plants or species are usually given individual attention.
•There are branches of horticulture that deal with flowers, seeds, turf and lawns, fruits, trees, worms, fishes, wines, silk, garden trails and much more.
Branches of Horticulture
  • Pomology(Fruit culture):The branch of horticulture, concerned with the production, harvesting, processing, preservation, storage and marketing of fruits and nuts. 
Pomology(Fruit culture)
  • Olericulture (Vegetable culture): The science and practice of growing, handling, storing, processing and marketing of vegetables. 
  • Floriculture: The science and practice of growing, handling, storing, processing and marketing of flowers.
Floriculture
  • Arboriculture : is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs.
  • Turf culture and management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of turf grass for sports or leisure use .
  • Ornamental and Landscape Horticulture: The art of designing gardens, establishing lawns, installing plants and placing ornaments in the landscape.
  • Viticulture includes the production and marketing of grapes.
  • Oenology includes all aspects of wine and winemaking.
  • Silviculture:  The name comes from the Latin silvi- (forest) + culture (as in growing).
is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.

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Structure and Functions of Ecosystem ; Biotic Components and Abiotic Components

Ecosystem refers to the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment in which they occur.  The structure and functions of an ecosystem include two basic components:
 Biotic components and Abiotic components
Biotic components : on the basis of production and consumption of food energy, the green plants are called producer components. Other living organisms like animals are considered as consumer components and living microorganisms are considered as decomposer components. All these together constitute biotic components.
The biotic components of an ecosystem have been classified by Odum (1971) into three groups: producers, consumers and decomposers.
1. Producers: make their own food example: Algae and water plants
2. Consumers:
a) Primary consumers: Feed on Producers  Example: Protozoan's and Crustaceans
b) Secondary consumers: Frog, Insects, small fishes
c) Tertiary consumers: Fishes, Snakes
3. Decomposers: feed on dead organic matter-convert it into simple soluble inorganic molecules that can be taken up by the plants. Example of decomposers: Bacteria, fungi and microbes

Abiotic components: It includes mainly materials and energy. The materials are water, minerals, gases, salts etc. And energy is like light, stored energy in chemical compounds, heat etc.
1. Inorganic components Example : CO2, H2O, N, S, Ca, P
2. Organic components Example : Protein, carbohydrate, Lipid
3. Climatic factors: Example : Temperature, light, wind, soil, rainfall

Functions of an Ecosystem
Plants in the ecosystem form a link between biotic and abiotic components. They absorb water an d minerals from the soil and combine them with carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight to make carbohydrate, fats, proteins, vitamins etc. This process is known as photosynthesis. Small herbivores and organism consume this vegetable matter and covert it into animal material. These may, in turn, by large carnivores. The sequence of eating and being eaten, with the resultant transfer of energy, is known as food chain. Each step in the food chain is known as trophic level. The producers forms the first trophic level, herbivores the second, and carnivores constitutes the third level.
food chain
Food chains are not isolated from one another. They are directly or indirectly interconnected. This inter connecting network of species in the ecosystem is termed as food web.

Ecosystem refers to the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment in which they occur.  The structure and functions of an ecosystem include two basic components:
 Biotic components and Abiotic components
Biotic components : on the basis of production and consumption of food energy, the green plants are called producer components. Other living organisms like animals are considered as consumer components and living microorganisms are considered as decomposer components. All these together constitute biotic components.
The biotic components of an ecosystem have been classified by Odum (1971) into three groups: producers, consumers and decomposers.
1. Producers: make their own food example: Algae and water plants
2. Consumers:
a) Primary consumers: Feed on Producers  Example: Protozoan's and Crustaceans
b) Secondary consumers: Frog, Insects, small fishes
c) Tertiary consumers: Fishes, Snakes
3. Decomposers: feed on dead organic matter-convert it into simple soluble inorganic molecules that can be taken up by the plants. Example of decomposers: Bacteria, fungi and microbes

Abiotic components: It includes mainly materials and energy. The materials are water, minerals, gases, salts etc. And energy is like light, stored energy in chemical compounds, heat etc.
1. Inorganic components Example : CO2, H2O, N, S, Ca, P
2. Organic components Example : Protein, carbohydrate, Lipid
3. Climatic factors: Example : Temperature, light, wind, soil, rainfall

Functions of an Ecosystem
Plants in the ecosystem form a link between biotic and abiotic components. They absorb water an d minerals from the soil and combine them with carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight to make carbohydrate, fats, proteins, vitamins etc. This process is known as photosynthesis. Small herbivores and organism consume this vegetable matter and covert it into animal material. These may, in turn, by large carnivores. The sequence of eating and being eaten, with the resultant transfer of energy, is known as food chain. Each step in the food chain is known as trophic level. The producers forms the first trophic level, herbivores the second, and carnivores constitutes the third level.
food chain
Food chains are not isolated from one another. They are directly or indirectly interconnected. This inter connecting network of species in the ecosystem is termed as food web.

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