Nostoc Taxonomic Position, Habitat, thallus and Cell structure

Nostoc: Taxonomic Position and Habitat
       Class: Cyanophyceae (Blue Green Algae)
       Order: Nostocales; Family: Nostocaceae
Nostoc Habitat, Nostoc under microscope

       Terrestrial Aquatic habitat
       Fresh water ponds, pools, puddles
       Damp soil N.commune
       Symbiotic association with some Plants Coralloid root Cycas, Anthoceros thallus
       Gelatinous grouping called “star jelly” witches butter”

Thallus structure
       Colonial, filamentous algae as mucilaginous balls
       Filaments: uniseriate, unbranched, beaded appearance
       3 types of cells: Vegetative cells, akinete and heterocyst
Cell structure
       Spherical, oval, barrel shaped cells
       Prokaryotic, two layers of  mucopolysachride
       Protoplasm divided into centroplasm and chromoplasm
       Centroplasm contains DNA
       Chromoplasm contains pigments and thylakoids
       Reserve food: Cyanophycean strach and cyanophycean protein granules
More on Nostoc: Heterocyst of Nostoc: Structure and Function
                            Reproduction in Nostoc 5 Different types
Nostoc: Taxonomic Position and Habitat
       Class: Cyanophyceae (Blue Green Algae)
       Order: Nostocales; Family: Nostocaceae
Nostoc Habitat, Nostoc under microscope

       Terrestrial Aquatic habitat
       Fresh water ponds, pools, puddles
       Damp soil N.commune
       Symbiotic association with some Plants Coralloid root Cycas, Anthoceros thallus
       Gelatinous grouping called “star jelly” witches butter”

Thallus structure
       Colonial, filamentous algae as mucilaginous balls
       Filaments: uniseriate, unbranched, beaded appearance
       3 types of cells: Vegetative cells, akinete and heterocyst
Cell structure
       Spherical, oval, barrel shaped cells
       Prokaryotic, two layers of  mucopolysachride
       Protoplasm divided into centroplasm and chromoplasm
       Centroplasm contains DNA
       Chromoplasm contains pigments and thylakoids
       Reserve food: Cyanophycean strach and cyanophycean protein granules
More on Nostoc: Heterocyst of Nostoc: Structure and Function
                            Reproduction in Nostoc 5 Different types
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Heterocyst of Nostoc Structure and Function


Nostoc is a Colonial, filamentous algae seen as mucilaginous balls that belongs to the class cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)
Heterocyst of Nostoc Structure and Function

    Heterocysts are Large sized, colourless, spherical, thick walled cells present in the filaments of blue green algae like Nostoc
     Position intercalary or terminal
    A prominent granule is present at each pole of the heterocyst called polar nodule.
Functions
-Main site of Nitrogen fixation
-Helps in vegetative reproduction; function as “point of breakage” of filaments; sometimes germinate into new filament
-Stimulate production of akinetes
-Serves as storage organs
More on Nostoc: Nostoc Taxonomic position, Habitat and Cell structure
                           Reproduction in Nostoc

Nostoc is a Colonial, filamentous algae seen as mucilaginous balls that belongs to the class cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)
Heterocyst of Nostoc Structure and Function

    Heterocysts are Large sized, colourless, spherical, thick walled cells present in the filaments of blue green algae like Nostoc
     Position intercalary or terminal
    A prominent granule is present at each pole of the heterocyst called polar nodule.
Functions
-Main site of Nitrogen fixation
-Helps in vegetative reproduction; function as “point of breakage” of filaments; sometimes germinate into new filament
-Stimulate production of akinetes
-Serves as storage organs
More on Nostoc: Nostoc Taxonomic position, Habitat and Cell structure
                           Reproduction in Nostoc
Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Reproduction in Nostoc 5 different types


Nostoc is a Colonial, filamentous algae as mucilaginous balls that belongs to the class cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)



  • Sexual reproduction is absent


    • Reproduction in Nostoc 5 different types
      Asexual Reproduction
      1. Fragmentation: the colony breaks up into many pieces and each forms a new colony or old trichomes breaks up into fragments and each forming new filaments

      2. Hormogonia: are short, small motile filaments with rounded ends. These small filaments are without heterocyst and come out of the mucilage sheath, undergo division and form new colonies

      3. Akinetes: Large sized, unicellular, thick walled, resting spores with plenty of reserve food in the cytoplasm
      Highly resistant to high temperature and extreme environments
      It can tide over unfavourable conditions
      On return of favourable condition, it germinate to form new filaments

      4. Heterocyst germination: In species like N.commune, heterocysts serves as resting spores and directly germinate to form new filaments.
      The protoplasm undergoes continuous division  and forms a germling
      On favourable condition, wall of heterocyst rupture and germling comes out and forms a new trichome.

      5. Endospores: Non flagellated, thin walled, naked spores formed within cells by the division of protoplast.
      Protoplast of the cell divides into small bits and each bit forms an endospore
      In species like N.commune
      More on Nostoc:  Nostoc Taxonomic position, Habitat and Cell structure
                                      Heterocyst of Nostoc: Structure and Function

      Nostoc is a Colonial, filamentous algae as mucilaginous balls that belongs to the class cyanophyceae (Blue green algae)



    • Sexual reproduction is absent


      • Reproduction in Nostoc 5 different types
        Asexual Reproduction
        1. Fragmentation: the colony breaks up into many pieces and each forms a new colony or old trichomes breaks up into fragments and each forming new filaments

        2. Hormogonia: are short, small motile filaments with rounded ends. These small filaments are without heterocyst and come out of the mucilage sheath, undergo division and form new colonies

        3. Akinetes: Large sized, unicellular, thick walled, resting spores with plenty of reserve food in the cytoplasm
        Highly resistant to high temperature and extreme environments
        It can tide over unfavourable conditions
        On return of favourable condition, it germinate to form new filaments

        4. Heterocyst germination: In species like N.commune, heterocysts serves as resting spores and directly germinate to form new filaments.
        The protoplasm undergoes continuous division  and forms a germling
        On favourable condition, wall of heterocyst rupture and germling comes out and forms a new trichome.

        5. Endospores: Non flagellated, thin walled, naked spores formed within cells by the division of protoplast.
        Protoplast of the cell divides into small bits and each bit forms an endospore
        In species like N.commune
        More on Nostoc:  Nostoc Taxonomic position, Habitat and Cell structure
                                        Heterocyst of Nostoc: Structure and Function
        Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
        Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

        Tree of the 21st Century Neem (Azadirachta indica)

        Neem (Scientific name- Azadirachta indica) family-Meliaceae, is a native tree of India. The Neem tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the “Tree of the 21st Century” by the United Nations. The leaves, seeds, bark, fruits, twigs, gum, root and kernels of neem have medicinal properties. High concentration of active ingredients are present in oil and seed; they are present in lesser amounts in leaves and barks
        Tree of the 21st Century Neem (Azadirachta indica)
        Neem is used for a wide range of ailments, such as influenza, sore throat, common cold, fungal infections, skin diseases, malaria, and many more ailments. It is one of the the main ingredients in every blood purification formula, used in Ayurveda. It is present in diabetic formula. It is also used in arthritis, rheumatism, external and internal parasites, treatment of malaria etc. 

        Source:
        United Nations environment Programme Neem, 2012. "The UN’s tree of the 21st Century. Nairobi: United Nation’s Environment programme."
        Available: http://www.unep.org/wed/tree-a-day/neem.asp
        Neem (Scientific name- Azadirachta indica) family-Meliaceae, is a native tree of India. The Neem tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the “Tree of the 21st Century” by the United Nations. The leaves, seeds, bark, fruits, twigs, gum, root and kernels of neem have medicinal properties. High concentration of active ingredients are present in oil and seed; they are present in lesser amounts in leaves and barks
        Tree of the 21st Century Neem (Azadirachta indica)
        Neem is used for a wide range of ailments, such as influenza, sore throat, common cold, fungal infections, skin diseases, malaria, and many more ailments. It is one of the the main ingredients in every blood purification formula, used in Ayurveda. It is present in diabetic formula. It is also used in arthritis, rheumatism, external and internal parasites, treatment of malaria etc. 

        Source:
        United Nations environment Programme Neem, 2012. "The UN’s tree of the 21st Century. Nairobi: United Nation’s Environment programme."
        Available: http://www.unep.org/wed/tree-a-day/neem.asp
        Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
        Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

        10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

        10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

        10 Medicinal Plants and their uses
        1. Adhatoda
        Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
        Family: Acanthaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaves and roots
        Uses:
        •       The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis.
        •        Several alkaloid are present in the drug of which the important ones are Vasicine and Vasicinone.
        •     Adhatoda are extensively used for treating cold, cough, asthma and chronic bronchitis.
        2. Aloe
        Botanical name: Aloe vera
        Family: Liliaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf
        Uses:
        •        The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin diseases, piles, jaundice, rheumatism.
        •        The pulp of roasted leaves, mixed with honey, is given in cold and cough.
        3. Bacopa
        Botanical name: Bacopa monnieri
        Family: Scrophulariaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plants
        Uses:
        •    Triterpene glycosides, bacopasaponins, luteolin, apigenin and bacoside. It is a classic and nerve tonic.
        •     Brahmi juice, prepared in ghee, is given orally to the infants in small doses for goodmemory.
        •    5-10 ml leaf juice is given to children in case of constipation.
        4. Catharanthus
        Botanical name: Cantharanthus roseus (Vincarosea)
        Family: Apocyanceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Roots and leaves
        Uses:
        •       Root bark contain three alkaloids ajmalicine, serpentine, reserpine. These alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative and transquilling properties.
        •        Anti-cancer drugs: Vinblastine, Vincristine and leucocrostine.
        5. Eclipta (False Daisy)
        Botanical name: Eclipta alba
        Family: Asteraceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •      The leaf extract of Eclipta found to be a powerful liver tonic. It is good for hair growth.
        •        A black dye is obtained from Eclipta, is used as a dye.
        •        The plant essence is extracted as a rasayan for longevity and rejuvenation.
        •        It is used against dysentery, anemia, eye diseases, asthma and liver cirrhosis.
        6. Neem
        Botanical name: Azadirachta indica
        Family: Meliaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf and seeds
        Uses:
        •        Its different parts are used in Ayurvedic treatment. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds, has insecticidal and medicinal properties.
        •         Neem seed cake is rich in organic contents and it enhances soil fertility. It is also an effective nematicide.
        •        Neem has anti-bacterial properties and it is used again skin infections.
        •        Neem leaf capsules are used as an insect repellent.
        •        Neem oil and leaf extract are used to manufacture beauty care products.

        7. Ocimum (Sacred basil or Holy basil)
        Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum
        Family: Lamiaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leave and flowers
        Uses:
        •       leaf juice is given against chronic fever, haemorrhage, dysentery.
        •        It is also used to check vomiting and as an antihelmintic.
        8. Phyllanthus amarus
        Botanical name: Phyllanthus amarus
        Family: Euphorbiaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •       This plant has a reputed position in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. It is used against bronchitis, anaemia, urinary problems, asthma and also as a diuretic.
        •        In Unani system, it is stomachic and useful against chronic dysentery.
        •        Fresh roots serve as an excellent remedy for jaundice.
        •        Bark yieldsa Vitter principle, called phyllanthin.
        9. Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha)
        Botanical name: Rauwolfia serpentina
        Family: Apocyanaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Root
        Uses:
        •      It lowers blood pressure and controls schizophrenia like symptoms or mental illness.
        •        Reserpine obtained from Rauvolfia, it is an effective remedy for hypertension.
        •        Root decotion is given for uterine contraction. 
        10. Sida (Flannel weed)
        Botanical name: Sida cordifolia
        Family: Malvaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •        The plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
        •        Used for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, nasal congestion.
        10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

        10 Medicinal Plants and their uses
        1. Adhatoda
        Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
        Family: Acanthaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaves and roots
        Uses:
        •       The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis.
        •        Several alkaloid are present in the drug of which the important ones are Vasicine and Vasicinone.
        •     Adhatoda are extensively used for treating cold, cough, asthma and chronic bronchitis.
        2. Aloe
        Botanical name: Aloe vera
        Family: Liliaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf
        Uses:
        •        The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin diseases, piles, jaundice, rheumatism.
        •        The pulp of roasted leaves, mixed with honey, is given in cold and cough.
        3. Bacopa
        Botanical name: Bacopa monnieri
        Family: Scrophulariaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plants
        Uses:
        •    Triterpene glycosides, bacopasaponins, luteolin, apigenin and bacoside. It is a classic and nerve tonic.
        •     Brahmi juice, prepared in ghee, is given orally to the infants in small doses for goodmemory.
        •    5-10 ml leaf juice is given to children in case of constipation.
        4. Catharanthus
        Botanical name: Cantharanthus roseus (Vincarosea)
        Family: Apocyanceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Roots and leaves
        Uses:
        •       Root bark contain three alkaloids ajmalicine, serpentine, reserpine. These alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative and transquilling properties.
        •        Anti-cancer drugs: Vinblastine, Vincristine and leucocrostine.
        5. Eclipta (False Daisy)
        Botanical name: Eclipta alba
        Family: Asteraceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •      The leaf extract of Eclipta found to be a powerful liver tonic. It is good for hair growth.
        •        A black dye is obtained from Eclipta, is used as a dye.
        •        The plant essence is extracted as a rasayan for longevity and rejuvenation.
        •        It is used against dysentery, anemia, eye diseases, asthma and liver cirrhosis.
        6. Neem
        Botanical name: Azadirachta indica
        Family: Meliaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf and seeds
        Uses:
        •        Its different parts are used in Ayurvedic treatment. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds, has insecticidal and medicinal properties.
        •         Neem seed cake is rich in organic contents and it enhances soil fertility. It is also an effective nematicide.
        •        Neem has anti-bacterial properties and it is used again skin infections.
        •        Neem leaf capsules are used as an insect repellent.
        •        Neem oil and leaf extract are used to manufacture beauty care products.

        7. Ocimum (Sacred basil or Holy basil)
        Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum
        Family: Lamiaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Leave and flowers
        Uses:
        •       leaf juice is given against chronic fever, haemorrhage, dysentery.
        •        It is also used to check vomiting and as an antihelmintic.
        8. Phyllanthus amarus
        Botanical name: Phyllanthus amarus
        Family: Euphorbiaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •       This plant has a reputed position in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. It is used against bronchitis, anaemia, urinary problems, asthma and also as a diuretic.
        •        In Unani system, it is stomachic and useful against chronic dysentery.
        •        Fresh roots serve as an excellent remedy for jaundice.
        •        Bark yieldsa Vitter principle, called phyllanthin.
        9. Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha)
        Botanical name: Rauwolfia serpentina
        Family: Apocyanaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Root
        Uses:
        •      It lowers blood pressure and controls schizophrenia like symptoms or mental illness.
        •        Reserpine obtained from Rauvolfia, it is an effective remedy for hypertension.
        •        Root decotion is given for uterine contraction. 
        10. Sida (Flannel weed)
        Botanical name: Sida cordifolia
        Family: Malvaceae
        Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
        Uses:
        •        The plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
        •        Used for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, nasal congestion.
        Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
        Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

        10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)

        Forests are large treasure house of a huge wealth of natural resources. They significantly contain nearly 50% of the terrestrial species of plants and animals
        Importance of forests( Economical or commercial aspects)
            Provide fuel wood for domestic and industrial uses, and timber for buildings, furniture, boats, railway sleepers and several other purposes.
            Supply raw materials for wood pulp in the manufacture of paper, rayon, ply woods, card boards.
            Provide food items in the form of roots, tubers, leaves, fruits, berries, nuts, spices etc
            Medicine like quinine and camphor, products like turpentine, resins, oils, alkaloids, dyes, gum, charcoal etc are obtained from forest trees.
           Serves as a source of sustainable income through ecotouism.
        Minor Forest Products(MFPs) include all the forest products, other than wood and timber. They consists of both animal products and plant products.
            Plant products: grasses, canes, bamboos, oils, leaves, oils, gums, tannins and resins
             Animal products: lac, honey, wax, Ivory, horns, hides
        10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)
        Download (ppt 1)Grasses, bamboo, Canes and leaves:
               Bamboo is generally considered as poor man’s timber
               Used for Roofing, walling, flooring and mat making, basketery, paper pulp
                        Tendu leaf of Bauhinia vahlii are used for making leaf plates and leaf cups
        2)Oils 
              •       sandal wood oil, cedar wood oil, oilve oil, clove oil, lemon grass oil, eucalyptus oil
        3) Gums used in textiles, cosmetics, medicines, pastes
               Karaya perhaps the most  important gum (Sterculia urens and S villosa)
        4) Resins:
                Resins- Turpentine oil  from pines and conifers
        5) Tannins and dyes: amla, hemlock, wattle,
               Dyes: Red sander, khair, flowers of Palash, fruits of mallotus, bark of wattle, roots of morinda etc
        Drug
               Quinine- Ant malarial from Cinchona tree
               Digitalis- heart stimulant- foxglove plant
               Morphine-analgesic from opium poppy
               Reserpine-anti hypertension from Rauwolfia
         Poisons- Aconite, Datura
        7)Spices
               Cinnamom, cardamom, galangal (Alpnia galanga)
        8) Edible plant products: tubers, flowers, fruits, berries, seeds, nuts etc
        9) Lac- is a resinous substance, secreted by the lac insect (Tachardia lacca, Laccifer lacca, or Kerria lacca)
               It is formed mainly of resin,  coloring pigments, wax, proteins, sugars etc
                         Finest form of lac is called shellac
        10)Honey and Beeswax
                          Honey used as food 
                          Used as medicine
        Forests are large treasure house of a huge wealth of natural resources. They significantly contain nearly 50% of the terrestrial species of plants and animals
        Importance of forests( Economical or commercial aspects)
            Provide fuel wood for domestic and industrial uses, and timber for buildings, furniture, boats, railway sleepers and several other purposes.
            Supply raw materials for wood pulp in the manufacture of paper, rayon, ply woods, card boards.
            Provide food items in the form of roots, tubers, leaves, fruits, berries, nuts, spices etc
            Medicine like quinine and camphor, products like turpentine, resins, oils, alkaloids, dyes, gum, charcoal etc are obtained from forest trees.
           Serves as a source of sustainable income through ecotouism.
        Minor Forest Products(MFPs) include all the forest products, other than wood and timber. They consists of both animal products and plant products.
            Plant products: grasses, canes, bamboos, oils, leaves, oils, gums, tannins and resins
             Animal products: lac, honey, wax, Ivory, horns, hides
        10 Minor Forest Products (MFPs)
        Download (ppt 1)Grasses, bamboo, Canes and leaves:
               Bamboo is generally considered as poor man’s timber
               Used for Roofing, walling, flooring and mat making, basketery, paper pulp
                        Tendu leaf of Bauhinia vahlii are used for making leaf plates and leaf cups
        2)Oils 
              •       sandal wood oil, cedar wood oil, oilve oil, clove oil, lemon grass oil, eucalyptus oil
        3) Gums used in textiles, cosmetics, medicines, pastes
               Karaya perhaps the most  important gum (Sterculia urens and S villosa)
        4) Resins:
                Resins- Turpentine oil  from pines and conifers
        5) Tannins and dyes: amla, hemlock, wattle,
               Dyes: Red sander, khair, flowers of Palash, fruits of mallotus, bark of wattle, roots of morinda etc
        Drug
               Quinine- Ant malarial from Cinchona tree
               Digitalis- heart stimulant- foxglove plant
               Morphine-analgesic from opium poppy
               Reserpine-anti hypertension from Rauwolfia
         Poisons- Aconite, Datura
        7)Spices
               Cinnamom, cardamom, galangal (Alpnia galanga)
        8) Edible plant products: tubers, flowers, fruits, berries, seeds, nuts etc
        9) Lac- is a resinous substance, secreted by the lac insect (Tachardia lacca, Laccifer lacca, or Kerria lacca)
               It is formed mainly of resin,  coloring pigments, wax, proteins, sugars etc
                         Finest form of lac is called shellac
        10)Honey and Beeswax
                          Honey used as food 
                          Used as medicine
        Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
        Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

        What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants

        Petroplants are the plants which provide liquid hydrocarbons as a substitute of liquid fuels. The hydrocarbons present in these plants can be converted to petroleum hydrocarbons. 
        Petroplants  include the members Euphorbiaceae, Apocyanaceae, Urticaceae, Asclepiaceae

        The oil crisis during World war II had led the Italians and the French to switch over to petroplants for petroleum production. The thick milky latex, extracted from Euphorbia abyssinica  was used in gasoline refinery. In 1970, Melvin Calvin showed the feasibility of procuring petroleum substitutes from certain specific groups of plants which are rich in hydrocarbons. Gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyris, milk bush (Euphorbia tirucalli) and milk weed(Calotrophis procera) are important petroplants. One advantage with the Euphoria plants is that they can grow even in semiarid lands and do not require irrigation and fertilizers for their growth. 
        What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants
        Certain tree species, such as Copaifea landsdorfii and  Copaifea   nultijuga are rich in oil . A single tree can give as much as 20-30 litres of oil in 2-3 hours in a single tapping. 
        Villagers in India use Jatropha oil can be an efficient and environmentally clean substitute for diesel. In Philippines, bamboo tube filled ignited fruits of petroleum nut (Pittosporum) is used as a torch light. Oil of Pittosporum rosinifarum contains monoterpene hydrocarbons, pinene and myrcene

        Cuphea oil (Cuphea spp), Cramble oil(Crambe abyssinica), Vernonia oil (Vernonia sp), bladderpod (Lesqurella sp), meadow foam oil (Limnanthes alba) etc, 
        in the United States, a blend made of sunflower oil and diesel  called sunoil, is widely used in diesel engines. similarly, coconut oil is mixed with diesel to give a blend, called cocodisesl, for use in diesels engine. 
        There are many species of Euphorbia which yield fuel oil resembling rude oil. Euphobia lathyris is an example. 
        Petroplants are the plants which provide liquid hydrocarbons as a substitute of liquid fuels. The hydrocarbons present in these plants can be converted to petroleum hydrocarbons. 
        Petroplants  include the members Euphorbiaceae, Apocyanaceae, Urticaceae, Asclepiaceae

        The oil crisis during World war II had led the Italians and the French to switch over to petroplants for petroleum production. The thick milky latex, extracted from Euphorbia abyssinica  was used in gasoline refinery. In 1970, Melvin Calvin showed the feasibility of procuring petroleum substitutes from certain specific groups of plants which are rich in hydrocarbons. Gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyris, milk bush (Euphorbia tirucalli) and milk weed(Calotrophis procera) are important petroplants. One advantage with the Euphoria plants is that they can grow even in semiarid lands and do not require irrigation and fertilizers for their growth. 
        What are Petrocrops? Example of Petroplants
        Certain tree species, such as Copaifea landsdorfii and  Copaifea   nultijuga are rich in oil . A single tree can give as much as 20-30 litres of oil in 2-3 hours in a single tapping. 
        Villagers in India use Jatropha oil can be an efficient and environmentally clean substitute for diesel. In Philippines, bamboo tube filled ignited fruits of petroleum nut (Pittosporum) is used as a torch light. Oil of Pittosporum rosinifarum contains monoterpene hydrocarbons, pinene and myrcene

        Cuphea oil (Cuphea spp), Cramble oil(Crambe abyssinica), Vernonia oil (Vernonia sp), bladderpod (Lesqurella sp), meadow foam oil (Limnanthes alba) etc, 
        in the United States, a blend made of sunflower oil and diesel  called sunoil, is widely used in diesel engines. similarly, coconut oil is mixed with diesel to give a blend, called cocodisesl, for use in diesels engine. 
        There are many species of Euphorbia which yield fuel oil resembling rude oil. Euphobia lathyris is an example. 
        Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
        Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

        Ecologically Fragile Area

        Ecologically fragile are is an extremely sensitive and highly vulnerable ecological are with high susceptibility to anthropogenic stress, highly altered natural habitats, seriously threatened biodiversity, and very delicately balanced and unstable abiotic and biotic conditions. Ecologically fragile areas require immediate and far sighted conservation measures to save them from permanent and irreparable damage and destruction. 

        Tropical forest and coral reefs are the richest source of biodiversity. At the same time, they are also among the most fragile and vulnerable habitats. Every year nearly 1% of the total tropical forests of the world may be permanently cleared or converted to slash burn agriculture.  If this trend continues at the present rate, all the tropical forests may disappear by the year 2135, marking the total devastation of the largest pool of the biodiversity in the world. Coral communities are also fast depleting due to global warming of oceans, increasing acidification of sea water, wide spread marine pollution etc. 
        Ecologically Fragile Area in India - Western Ghats
        According to the report Gadgil committee, there are 123 ecologically fragile villages in the Western Ghats range of Kerala(India).
        Ecologically fragile are is an extremely sensitive and highly vulnerable ecological are with high susceptibility to anthropogenic stress, highly altered natural habitats, seriously threatened biodiversity, and very delicately balanced and unstable abiotic and biotic conditions. Ecologically fragile areas require immediate and far sighted conservation measures to save them from permanent and irreparable damage and destruction. 

        Tropical forest and coral reefs are the richest source of biodiversity. At the same time, they are also among the most fragile and vulnerable habitats. Every year nearly 1% of the total tropical forests of the world may be permanently cleared or converted to slash burn agriculture.  If this trend continues at the present rate, all the tropical forests may disappear by the year 2135, marking the total devastation of the largest pool of the biodiversity in the world. Coral communities are also fast depleting due to global warming of oceans, increasing acidification of sea water, wide spread marine pollution etc. 
        Ecologically Fragile Area in India - Western Ghats
        According to the report Gadgil committee, there are 123 ecologically fragile villages in the Western Ghats range of Kerala(India).
        Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
        Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

        What is Ecological Footprint? Application of Ecological Footprint

        The concept was put forward by William Rees (1992), formerly termed appropriated carrying capacity. 
        What is Ecological Footprint definition


        It represents the biologically productive area of land and sea, necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and also to dispose the associated waste.
        Ecological footprint: Do we fit our planet? from Alexandre Magnin on Vimeo.

        It is a measure of how much biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it consumes, and to absorb the waste it regenerates.
        •Ecological footprint is a resource accounting system for the biological capacity of earth

        •It may very well reveal how much biocapacity does the planet earth possess and how much of it mankind uses. 

        How much of the earth or how many planet earths is necessary to support humanity.

        The estimated global Ecological footprint of man kind was 1.5 planet earths. This means that humanity uses ecological resources 1.5 times as quickly as Earth can regenerate and new them.  (2007 report)

        •The ecological footprint is usually measured in global hectares (gha)

        •In 2007, the biologically productive per capita area worldwide was approximately 1.8gha.

        •Present ecological footprint (EF) has exceeded the biocapacity of the  earth by 20%. Currently , as per the latest information, Cuba is the only country whose ecological footprint (EF) is below 1.8gha

        • Global Footprint Network (GFN)calculates the ecological footprint from UN and other data for the world as a whole and for over 200 nations. They estimate that as of 2013, humanity has been using natural capital 1.6 times as fast as nature can renew it.

        Significance of Ecological Footprint (EF)
        EF can be used as  an effective tool for a number of purposes, namely
        To educate the people about natures carrying capacity and the over consumption of resources by man kind
        To prove that current life styles are not sustainable
        To reveal that there exist inequalities among nations in the supply and consumption of resources
        Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) can be used as an indicator of environmental  sustainability to measure and manage the use of resources.
        Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) can be used to explore the sustainability of life styles, goods and services, industry, economy and so on.  
        The concept was put forward by William Rees (1992), formerly termed appropriated carrying capacity. 
        What is Ecological Footprint definition


        It represents the biologically productive area of land and sea, necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and also to dispose the associated waste.
        Ecological footprint: Do we fit our planet? from Alexandre Magnin on Vimeo.

        It is a measure of how much biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it consumes, and to absorb the waste it regenerates.
        •Ecological footprint is a resource accounting system for the biological capacity of earth

        •It may very well reveal how much biocapacity does the planet earth possess and how much of it mankind uses. 

        How much of the earth or how many planet earths is necessary to support humanity.

        The estimated global Ecological footprint of man kind was 1.5 planet earths. This means that humanity uses ecological resources 1.5 times as quickly as Earth can regenerate and new them.  (2007 report)

        •The ecological footprint is usually measured in global hectares (gha)

        •In 2007, the biologically productive per capita area worldwide was approximately 1.8gha.

        •Present ecological footprint (EF) has exceeded the biocapacity of the  earth by 20%. Currently , as per the latest information, Cuba is the only country whose ecological footprint (EF) is below 1.8gha

        • Global Footprint Network (GFN)calculates the ecological footprint from UN and other data for the world as a whole and for over 200 nations. They estimate that as of 2013, humanity has been using natural capital 1.6 times as fast as nature can renew it.

        Significance of Ecological Footprint (EF)
        EF can be used as  an effective tool for a number of purposes, namely
        To educate the people about natures carrying capacity and the over consumption of resources by man kind
        To prove that current life styles are not sustainable
        To reveal that there exist inequalities among nations in the supply and consumption of resources
        Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) can be used as an indicator of environmental  sustainability to measure and manage the use of resources.
        Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) can be used to explore the sustainability of life styles, goods and services, industry, economy and so on.  
        Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
        Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

        Soil Types: Sandy soil, Clay soil, Loamy soil, Alluvial soil, Red soil, Peat soil

        Soil Types
        •  The term soil is derived from a latin word ‘Solum’ which means floor.
        • Soil is the basic substratum for all forms of life in the world.
        • Soil as a complex physical biological system providing support, water, nutrients and oxygen for plants.
        • The branch of science, concerned with the study of soil, is termed pedology or edaphology (Soil science)
        •  Soil may be defined as a thin layer of earth’s crust which serves as a natural medium for the growth of plants.
        • It may be of six types mainly


        1.Clay soil 
        • It consists of very fine grained material with very less air spaces.
        • It is difficult to work with since most of the time there is a chance of water logging and harm to the roots of the plant.
        • It is not a suitable type of soil for any garden, as it becomes hard during hot season and renders it difficult for the roots to spread.
        • Generally speaking, soil containing more than 35% of clay is unsuitable for rowing plants
        • Feels lumpy and sticky when very wet
        • Rock-hard when dry
        • Clay drains poorly
        • Few air spaces
        • Warms slowly in spring
        • Heavy to cultivate
        2. Sandy soil
        • This type consists of rock and mineral particles.
        • Sandy soil is formed by the disintegration and weathering of rocks such as limestone, granite, etc.
        • Sandy soil is easy to handle since it is light and porous.
        • It provides good aeration and drainage but dries out quickly.
        • Free-draining soil
        • Gritty to the touch
        • Warms up quickly in spring
        • Easy to cultivate
        • May lack nutrients, which are easily washed through the soil in wet weather (often called a "hungry" soil.)
        3.Peat soil
        • Contains a much higher proportion of organic matter (peat) because the soil’s acidic nature inhibits decomposition
        • But this means there are few nutrients
        • Dark in colour
        • Warms up quickly in spring
        • Highly water retentive and may require drainage if the water table is near the surface
        • Fantastic for plant growth if fertilizer is added

        4.Loamy soil
        • This soil consists of sand, silt and clay in relatively even concentration (40-40-20% concentration respectively).
        • Loamy soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils and have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils.
        • Loam is considered ideal for gardening and agricultural uses because it retains nutrients and water well while still allowing excess water to drain away.
        • Loam is found in a majority of successful farms in regions around the world known for their fertile land.
        • This soil is easy to work over a wide range of moisture conditions.
        • The perfect soil
        • Good structure
        • Drains well
        • Retains moisture
        • Full of nutrients
        • Easy to cultivate
        • Warms up quickly in spring and doesn’t dry out in summer
        5. Alluvial soil
        • It is the sediment of rivers and streams and rich in humus(decomposed organic matter).
        • This soil is excellent for ferns and palms
        • Alluvial Soil is best for crops like - Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Jute, Barley, Corn, Oilseed, Coffee, Potatoes, Chili, Cloves etc
        6. Red soil
        • Red earth with soft fine particles dissolve quickly in water is suitable for most plants including pot plants.
        • It is rich in Iron, phosphate, lime, potash and humus and supports wide crop diversity.  
        • Red Soil is best for crops like - Cotton, Wheat, Pulses, Tobacco, Jowar, Linseed, Millet, Potatoes and Some Fruits etc. 
        Soil Types
        •  The term soil is derived from a latin word ‘Solum’ which means floor.
        • Soil is the basic substratum for all forms of life in the world.
        • Soil as a complex physical biological system providing support, water, nutrients and oxygen for plants.
        • The branch of science, concerned with the study of soil, is termed pedology or edaphology (Soil science)
        •  Soil may be defined as a thin layer of earth’s crust which serves as a natural medium for the growth of plants.
        • It may be of six types mainly


        1.Clay soil 
        • It consists of very fine grained material with very less air spaces.
        • It is difficult to work with since most of the time there is a chance of water logging and harm to the roots of the plant.
        • It is not a suitable type of soil for any garden, as it becomes hard during hot season and renders it difficult for the roots to spread.
        • Generally speaking, soil containing more than 35% of clay is unsuitable for rowing plants
        • Feels lumpy and sticky when very wet
        • Rock-hard when dry
        • Clay drains poorly
        • Few air spaces
        • Warms slowly in spring
        • Heavy to cultivate
        2. Sandy soil
        • This type consists of rock and mineral particles.
        • Sandy soil is formed by the disintegration and weathering of rocks such as limestone, granite, etc.
        • Sandy soil is easy to handle since it is light and porous.
        • It provides good aeration and drainage but dries out quickly.
        • Free-draining soil
        • Gritty to the touch
        • Warms up quickly in spring
        • Easy to cultivate
        • May lack nutrients, which are easily washed through the soil in wet weather (often called a "hungry" soil.)
        3.Peat soil
        • Contains a much higher proportion of organic matter (peat) because the soil’s acidic nature inhibits decomposition
        • But this means there are few nutrients
        • Dark in colour
        • Warms up quickly in spring
        • Highly water retentive and may require drainage if the water table is near the surface
        • Fantastic for plant growth if fertilizer is added

        4.Loamy soil
        • This soil consists of sand, silt and clay in relatively even concentration (40-40-20% concentration respectively).
        • Loamy soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils and have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils.
        • Loam is considered ideal for gardening and agricultural uses because it retains nutrients and water well while still allowing excess water to drain away.
        • Loam is found in a majority of successful farms in regions around the world known for their fertile land.
        • This soil is easy to work over a wide range of moisture conditions.
        • The perfect soil
        • Good structure
        • Drains well
        • Retains moisture
        • Full of nutrients
        • Easy to cultivate
        • Warms up quickly in spring and doesn’t dry out in summer
        5. Alluvial soil
        • It is the sediment of rivers and streams and rich in humus(decomposed organic matter).
        • This soil is excellent for ferns and palms
        • Alluvial Soil is best for crops like - Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Jute, Barley, Corn, Oilseed, Coffee, Potatoes, Chili, Cloves etc
        6. Red soil
        • Red earth with soft fine particles dissolve quickly in water is suitable for most plants including pot plants.
        • It is rich in Iron, phosphate, lime, potash and humus and supports wide crop diversity.  
        • Red Soil is best for crops like - Cotton, Wheat, Pulses, Tobacco, Jowar, Linseed, Millet, Potatoes and Some Fruits etc. 
        Sharing is Caring ..... Please take 5 seconds to Share. Thank you...
        Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...
         
        2016 Plant Science 4 U | Biology Quizzes - QuizBiology.com Our Partners Biology Exams 4 U, Major Differences, MCQ Biology