10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures | Botanical Name - Family - Useful part

10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

10 Medicinal Plants and their uses

1. Adhatoda

  • Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)
  • Family: Acanthaceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Leaves and roots


  • The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis.
  • Several alkaloids are present in the drug of which the important ones are Vasicine and Vasicinone.
  • Adhatoda is extensively used for treating cold, cough, asthma, and chronic bronchitis.

2. Aloe

  • Botanical name: Aloe vera
  • Family: Liliaceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf


  • The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin diseases, piles, jaundice, rheumatism.
  • The pulp of roasted leaves, mixed with honey, is given in cold and cough.

3. Bacopa

  • Botanical name: Bacopa monnieri
  • Family: Scrophulariaceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plants


  • Triterpene glycosides, bacopa saponins, luteolin, apigenin, and bacoside. It is a classic and nerve tonic.
  • Brahmi juice, prepared in ghee, is given orally to the infants in small doses for good memory.
  • 5-10 ml leaf juice is given to children in case of constipation.

4. Catharanthus

  • Botanical name: Catharanthus roseus (Vinca rosea)
  • Family: Apocyanceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Roots and leaves


  • Root bark contains three alkaloids ajmalicine, serpentine, reserpine. These alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative, and transquilling properties.
  • Anti-cancer drugs: Vinblastine, Vincristine, and leucocrostine.

5. Eclipta (False Daisy)

  • Botanical name: Eclipta alba
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant


  • The leaf extract of Eclipta was found to be a powerful liver tonic. It is good for hair growth.
  • A black dye is obtained from Eclipta, is used as a dye.
  • The plant essence is extracted as a Rasayana for longevity and rejuvenation.
  • It is used against dysentery, anemia, eye diseases, asthma, and liver cirrhosis.

6. Neem

  • Botanical name: Azadirachta indica
  • Family: Meliaceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf and seeds


  • Its different parts are used in Ayurvedic treatment. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds, has insecticidal and medicinal properties.
  •  Neem seed cake is rich in organic contents and it enhances soil fertility. It is also an effective nematicide.
  • Neem has anti-bacterial properties and it is used again skin infections.
  • Neem leaf capsules are used as an insect repellents.
  • Neem oil and leaf extract are used to manufacture beauty care products. 

7. Ocimum (Sacred basil or Holy basil)
  • Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Leave and flowers
  •     leaf juice is given against chronic fever, hemorrhage, dysentery.
  •     It is also used to check vomiting and as an anti-helminthic.
8. Phyllanthus amarus
  • Botanical name: Phyllanthus amarus
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
  •     This plant has a reputed position in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. It is used against bronchitis, anemia, urinary problems, asthma, and also as a diuretic.
  •     In the Unani system, it is stomachic and useful against chronic dysentery.
  •     Fresh roots serve as an excellent remedy for jaundice.
  •     Bark yields a Vitter principle, called phyllanthin.
9. Rauwolfia (Sarpagandha)
  • Botanical name: Rauwolfia serpentina
  • Family: Apocyanaceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Root
  •      It lowers blood pressure and controls schizophrenia-like symptoms or mental illness.
  •      Reserpine obtained from Rauwolfia, is an effective remedy for hypertension.
  •      Root decoction is given for uterine contraction.
10. Sida (Flannel weed)
  • Botanical name: Sida cordifolia
  • Family: Malvaceae
  • Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
  •     The plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
  •     Used for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, nasal congestion.
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