10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures

10 Medicinal Plants and their uses

1. Adhatoda

Botanical name: Justicia adhatoda (Adhatoda vasica)

Family: Acanthaceae

Morphology of the useful plants: Leaves and roots


  • The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis.
  • Several alkaloids is present in the drug of which the important ones are Vasicine and Vasicinone.
  •  Adhatoda is extensively used for treating cold, cough, asthma and chronic bronchitis.

2. Aloe

Botanical name: Aloe vera

Family: Liliaceae

Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf


  • The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin diseases, piles, jaundice, rheumatism.
  • The pulp of roasted leaves, mixed with honey, is given in cold and cough.

3. Bacopa

Botanical name: Bacopa monnieri

Family: Scrophulariaceae

Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plants


  • Triterpene glycosides, bacopa saponins, luteolin, apigenin, and bacoside. It is a classic and nerve tonic.
  • Brahmi juice, prepared in ghee, is given orally to the infants in small doses for good memory.
  • 5-10 ml leaf juice is given to children in case of constipation.

4. Catharanthus

Botanical name: Catharanthus roseus (Vincarosea)

Family: Apocyanceae

Morphology of the useful plants: Roots and leaves


  • Root bark contain three alkaloids ajmalicine, serpentine, reserpine. These alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative and transquilling properties.
  •  Anti-cancer drugs: Vinblastine, Vincristine, and leucocrostine.

5. Eclipta (False Daisy)

Botanical name: Eclipta alba

Family: Asteraceae

Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant


  • The leaf extract of Eclipta found to be a powerful liver tonic. It is good for hair growth.
  • A black dye is obtained from Eclipta, is used as a dye.
  • The plant essence is extracted as a rasayan for longevity and rejuvenation.
  • It is used against dysentery, anemia, eye diseases, asthma and liver cirrhosis.

6. Neem

Botanical name: Azadirachta indica

Family: Meliaceae

Morphology of the useful plants: Leaf and seeds


  • Its different parts are used in Ayurvedic treatment. Neem oil, extracted from the seeds, has insecticidal and medicinal properties.
  •  Neem seed cake is rich in organic contents and it enhances soil fertility. It is also an effective nematicide.
  • Neem has anti-bacterial properties and it is used again skin infections.
  • Neem leaf capsules are used as an insect repellents.
  • Neem oil and leaf extract are used to manufacture beauty care products. 

7. Ocimum (Sacred basil or Holy basil)
Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum
Family: Lamiaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Leave and flowers
  •       leaf juice is given against chronic fever, haemorrhage, dysentery.
  •        It is also used to check vomiting and as an antihelmintic.

8. Phyllanthus amarus
Botanical name: Phyllanthus amarus
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
  •       This plant has a reputed position in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. It is used against bronchitis, anemia, urinary problems, asthma, and also as a diuretic.
  •        In the Unani system, it is stomachic and useful against chronic dysentery.
  •        Fresh roots serve as an excellent remedy for jaundice.
  •        Bark yields a Vitter principle, called phyllanthin.
9. Rauvolfia (Sarpagandha)
Botanical name: Rauwolfia serpentina
Family: Apocyanaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Root
  •      It lowers blood pressure and controls schizophrenia-like symptoms or mental illness.
  •        Reserpine obtained from Rauvolfia, it is an effective remedy for hypertension.
  •        Root decoction is given for uterine contraction.
10. Sida (Flannel weed)
Botanical name: Sida cordifolia
Family: Malvaceae
Morphology of the useful plants: Whole plant
  •        The plant is used in Ayurvedic medicine.
  •        Used for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, nasal congestion.
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