Resemblances Between Rusts and Smuts

Rusts: Common name of economically important pathogenic fungi, belonging to the division Basidiomycota. Common name given because of the “rusty” appearance caused by disease, in urediospore stage. Many species parasitic on grain crops. 

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis) on wheat stem and leave

Characterized by lack of fruiting bodies, formation of basidia and basidiospores from germination of teliospores and having as many as five spore stages and two hosts, e.g., Puccinia graminis.

Smuts: Common name of economically important pathogenic fungi, belonging to the division Basidiomycota. Common name given because of the black, powdery appearance of infected host plants, in teliospore stage. Many species parasitic on grain crops. Similar in characteristic with rusts, but having fewer spore stages
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Bermuda grass smut (Ustilago cynodotis) on flowers.

Similarities between Rusts and Smuts
1. The mycelium in both passes through two stages, the  primary (monokaryotic) and the secondary stage (dikaryotic).

2. The dikaryotic mycelium is of greater importance. It is usually perennial in both. It is intercellular and obtains  nourishment by means of hausroria. It produces teleutospores.

3.Motile cells in the life cycle of both smuts and rusts are lacking.

4.The teleutospores on both are resting spores and on germination produces basidiospores. Ustilago tritici is the only exception.

5.The tertiary mycelium and basidiocarps are lacking in both.

6.The dolipore parenthesome septal complex, which is the hall mark of he Basidiomycetes, is absent in both  the rusts and smuts.

7.It nature both appear to be obligate in their parasitism but recently the researchers have been able to grow both on culture media as facultative saprophytes.
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