Definition of the Seed - Advantages and Disadvantages of Seed Propagation

Definition: Seed is a mature ovule with embryo, seed coat and nutritive tissue.
Seed Propagation

•Seed coat is called integuments.
•Nutritive tissue is called endosperm.
•Embryo is the miniature plantlet formed by the fusion of male and female gametes during fertilization.
•Mature embryo has two growing regions radicle (embryonic root) and plumule (embryonic shoot). Radicle give rise to the root and plumule give rise to shoot.
Advantages of Seed Propagation
1. Most effective natural method of propagation in many plants.
2. Seed propagation increases genetic variation forming hybrids with superior qualities.
3. Seed is the most important means of developing new cultivars.
4. Effective for producing virus free plants.
5. A method of storing plants for a long time without losing its viability.
5. Seedlings are comparatively cheap.
6. Seed germination often result in plants with superior qualities than vegetative propagation.
7. Transport of seed as a propagule is easy.
Disadvantages of Seed Propagation
1. Due to genetic variation, very difficult to retain superior qualities.
2. Trees may take more time to produce seeds than grafted plants.
3. Seedling trees are often large, therefore comparatively expensive to maintain in an orchard.
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