Ecosystem-Definition, Different types and Examples

  • The term ecosystem was coined by A.G. Tansley (1935)
  • It is a “Life supporting system”
  • Eco=region of space where organisms live
  • System =formed by interacting organism

Pond ecosystem

Definition: Ecosystem refers to the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment in which they occur.
It is a “Life supporting system"
Ecosystem may be of two types: Natural and Artificial (Manmade)
Examples of ecosystem

The above figure gives you a summary of different types of ecosystems and examples of each type.
Each ecosystem may be considered as two layers, six structural components and six processes.
i)  Layers: Autotrophic layer and heterotrophic layer
Autotrophic layer or green belt within which the buildup of complex substances predominates using solar energy.
Heterotrophic layer or brown layer within which further manipulation and decomposition of the complex substances predominates.

ii)Structural components:
  • Inorganic substances: it involved n material cycles.
  • organic compounds that link biotic and Abiotic sectors.
  • Climatic regime :example rain fall, temperature
  • Producers mainly green plants that manufacture food from sunlight (light energy)
  • Consumers animals that consume other organisms and particulate organic matter-primary and secondary consumers.
  • Decomposers chiefly microbes that breakdown  complex compounds with release of products that are recycled by plants
iii)  Processes:
  • Energy flow
  • Food chains
  • Water and mineral nutrient cycles
  • Development and evolution (Succession)
  • Control (Cybernetics)
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